Hello Patriot’s and Concerned Citizens of America;
“Take up arms, prepare and don’t waste time or ammo. Believe and you will live.”
Today, March 6th, 2013, I came to a realization of sorts that I had never come to before but today I finally knew what most of us don’t know yet. That is we are now and have been for at least a short while now in the beginning stages of the 2nd American Revolutionary War. We are in it now, we are here patriot’s! We are in the early stages of it where the more finalized portions of the socialist, evil agenda, is being placed around the neck of America. With the introduction of an American President who is extremely leftist, who abhors our Constitution and God himself, our Bill of Rights & our basic human rights as people, we are in the final pages of a long chapter that is starting to close. We are in this war already, we are in it and we don’t even know it for the most part. What is at stake here is our future and future generations of American people. I need not go into all of the reasons that we are here now, most of us know them or have a good idea about the hundreds of reasons why we are here.
There has been a government inside our government working against the American Republic for quite some time now. Over 100 years of it building, growing, usurpation’s. Now they’re tightening the noose and fast. They know their time is short also. They fear an uprising amongst us patriot’s and hence why we are experiencing rapid attacks on us all because of our faith in the Constitution and in ourselves to not be subjected to this much longer. This includes psychological warfare against us through the MSM (Main Stream Media). They learned from the 1st Revolutionary War about mistakes to not make, at least as much as they think they need to. So they’re making the preparations needed to stop us and to imprison us and maybe kill us if necessary.
Inside our own government is a shadow government comprised of bankers, cartels, kings, queens, politicians, presidents, foreign nationals, enemies of our state who are also citizens here, who have power and control of many resources and funds. This goes beyond the U.N., although some of them are part of the U.N. delegation. Our own government for the most part isn’t even fully aware of these things and they’re being used as puppets. Only when some of them see the truth, it will be too late for them as they’re part of the open conspiracy to destroy America and to implement a total domination with a totalitarian system over the people here.
This is the 1st stage we are in now and as we make our way through it, gather your arms, build your ammo storage up, save on water and consumables that you can actually use. Tools, lighters, fire-starters, anything you can save and actually use to survive and fight with also are necessary. Forget loading up your house with tons of foods and water or so much ammo that you will never be able to use them. Be practical yet cautious. We are here now and as we move forward, the enemies who are consorting against us will make it known that they want our last bit of freedom and liberty. Train and prepare with your arms and congregate with other patriot’s because tomorrow maybe our last day that we can walk outside freely.
For this war has already begun and if you take heed to my warnings, then you will have a better chance of survival and if you are going to fight, you need to be true to yourself and follow through on it because we are going to need every single man who is healthy enough to do this. Our liberty and freedom depends on us fighting for it, here, and going against the powers that come to stop us. The war is here now and when we finally begin to fight, that will be the 2nd stage. Be mindful and don’t fret over evil men but hope in God if you believe in him. If you don’t, that is fine but we all have a stake in this and we all have to get ready.
INTERNMENT AND RESETTLEMENT OPERATIONS
DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION: Distribution authorized to the DOD and DOD
contractors only to protect technical or operational information from automatic
dissemination under the International Exchange Program or by other means. This
determination was made on 8 December 2008. Other requests for this document
must be referred to the Commandant, U.S. Army Military Police School, ATTN:
ATZT-TDD-M, 320 MANSCEN Loop, Suite 270, Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri 65473-
DESTRUCTION NOTICE: Destroy by any method that will prevent disclosure of
contents or reconstruction of the document.
HEADQUARTERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY This publication is available at
Army Knowledge Online (www.us.army.mil) and
General Dennis J. Reimer Training and Doctrine
Digital Library at (www.train.army.mil). FM 3-39.40
DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION: Distribution authorized to the DOD and DOD contractors only to protect technical or operational information from automatic dissemination under the International Exchange Program or by other means. This determination was made on 8 December 2008. Other requests for this document must be referred to the Commandant, U.S. Army Military Police School, ATTN: ATZT-TDD-M, 320 MANSCEN Loop, Suite 270, Fort
Leonard Wood, Missouri 65473-8929.
*This publication supersedes FM 3-19.40, 4 September 2007.
FM 3-39.40 12
Field manual (FM) 3-39.40 is aligned with FM 3-39, the military police keystone FM. FM 3-39.40 provides guidance for commanders and staffs on internment and resettlement (I/R) operations. This manual addresses I/R operations across the spectrum of conflict, specifically the doctrinal paradigm shift from traditional enemy prisoner of war (EPW) operations to the broader and more inclusive requirements of detainee operations.
Additionally, FM 3-39.40 discusses the critical issue of detainee rehabilitation. It describes the doctrinal foundation, principles, and processes that military police and other elements will employ when dealing with I/R populations. As part of internment, these populations include U.S. military prisoners, and multiple categories of detainees (civilian internees [CIs], retained personnel [RP], and enemy combatants), while resettlement operations are focused on multiple categories of dislocated civilians (DCs).
Military police conduct I/R operations during offensive, defensive, stability, or civil support operations. I/R operations include military police support to U.S. military prisoner and detainee operations within operational environments (OEs), ranging from major combat operations to humanitarian-assistance missions in support of a host nation (HN) or civil agency.
I/R operations are a major subordinate Army tactical task under the
sustainment warfighting function. (See FM 7-15.)
Placement under the sustainment warfighting function does not mean that I/R operations do not have relevance in the other warfighting functions.
While I/R is listed under the sustainment warfighting function, it should be noted this is not a specified or implied mission of all
sustainment units or commands. Most sustainment units provide logistics, personnel services, and health service
support to I/R operations.
Military police are uniquely qualified to perform the full range of I/R operations.
They have the requisite skill sets provided through specific training and operational experience. The skills necessary for performing confinement operations for U.S. military prisoners in permanent facilities are directly transferable and adaptable for tactical confinement of U.S. military prisoners and detention of detainees. All military police units are specifically manned, equipped, and trained to perform I/R operations across the spectrum and those identified as I/R units are the specialists within the Army for this role.
FM 3-39.40 depicts the changes in terminology from the focus on the contiguous battlefield to reflect the types of operations being conducted in today’s OEs. These changes address the modifications made to previous EPW processing operations. The terms division forward, central collection point, and corps holding area no longer
They have been replaced with the terms detainee collection point (DCP) (brigade level), detainee holding area (DHA) (division level), theater internment facility (TIF), and strategic internment facility (SIF).This manual recognizes the role of police intelligence operations in I/R operations and enhances the critical importance of military police and military intelligence interaction at all echelons.
It further highlights the long-standing requirement to treat all individuals humanely according to applicable U.S. laws and regulations, international laws, execution orders, fragmentary orders (FRAGOs), and other operationally specific guidelines such as Department of Defense (DOD) policies. Moreover, it stipulates that ill treatment of U.S. military prisoners, detainees (EPWs, CIs, and RP), and DCs is strictly prohibited, regardless of any circumstances or the chaos of major operations.
FM 3-39.40 aligns with FM 3-0, FM 3-39, FM 7-15, and other Army and joint doctrine, to include Joint Publication (JP) 3-63. This manual is organized into 10 chapters with 14 appendixes to provide additional details on I/R topics. Chapters 1 through 3 follow the flow of FM 3-39, and describe the military police function of I/R operations. Chapters 4 through 6 focus primarily on detainee operations, to include planning, preparing, executing, and sustaining all I/R operations.
Chapters 7 through 10 focus on the confinement of U.S. military prisoners, rehabilitative programs for U.S. military prisoners and detainees, parole and release or transfer programs, and resettlement operations for DCs. A brief description of each chapter and appendix follows:
• Chapter 1 defines the objectives and principles of I/R operations and describes U.S. policies on the protection and care of all detainees, U.S. military prisoners, and DCs. It also emphasizes the fundamental requirement for the humane treatment of all persons captured, held, assisted, or otherwise under the control of DOD personnel, regardless of their individual status. Preface 12 February 2010 FM 3-39.40 vii
• Chapter 2 provides a description of I/R in support of operations across the spectrum of conflict. It examines the OE and the significant importance of I/R to tactical, operational, andstrategic operations. Additionally, it discusses the importance of integrating detainee operations within the overarching efforts in major engagements.
• Chapter 3 discusses command and staff roles and their respective responsibilities in resourcing and synchronizing the efforts of multidisciplined functions and personnel. Clear command and control (C2) is essential for seamless operations to ensure that the principles of I/R operations are realized.
• Chapter 4 focuses on detainee operations planning and considerations. It includes a discussion on integrating intelligence and interrogation operations. Emphasis is placed on the treatment and protection of detainees, use of force, and training for detainee operations.
• Chapter 5 provides information on the capture and initial detention and screening of detainees.
• Chapter 6 discusses facility infrastructure considerations at all levels. Successful operations include the effective incorporation of sustainment support. This chapter describes the integrated sustainment effort required to support I/R operations.
• Chapter 7 discusses the confinement of U.S. military prisoners, to include battlefield and nonbattlefield confinement.
• Chapter 8 provides a discussion of the rehabilitative processes for confined U.S. military prisoners and detainees, to include effective measures that ensure a successful return to society.
• Chapter 9 addresses the processes of paroling, transferring, or releasing U.S. military prisoners and detainees.
• Chapter 10 provides an overview of resettlement operations for DCs. It describes the objectives and principles, supporting organizations, and military police support of resettlement operations.
• Appendix A is a metric conversion chart that is included according to Army Regulation (AR) 25-30.
• Appendix B identifies military police units with I/R capabilities that may be assigned to the theater of operations.
• Appendix C describes requirements and activities associated with the employment of contractors during support to detainee operations.
• Appendix D describes the intent of the protections given by each of the four Geneva Conventions, the different categories of individuals under these treaties as required by international humanitarian law,
and the requirement to establish a tribunal to determine the status of an individual in question.
• Appendix E provides background information and considerations for operating with the various agencies typically concerned with I/R operations.
• Appendix F provides a sample facility checklist for planning considerations when conducting detainee operations at the TIF or SIF.
• Appendix G consists of forms used when processing and maintaining I/R populations.
• Appendix H provides guidance for applying the rules for use of force (RUF) and implementing
nonlethal weapons (NLWs) and riot control measures.
• Appendix I outlines health support to be provided during I/R operations.
• Appendix J provides guidance for the design and construction of I/R facilities and the associated sustainment requirements for establishing I/R facilities.
• Appendix K describes the psychological operations (PSYOP), practices, and procedures to support I/R operations.
• Appendix L provides general guidelines for the handling of captured material and documents that could be used as evidence in legal proceedings against captured persons suspected of crimes against humanity, terrorism, war crimes, and other crimes.
• Appendix M addresses biometrics and military police considerations for their use in I/R operations and facility management. Preface
viii FM 3-39.40 12 February 2010
• Appendix N provides tactics, techniques, and procedures for establishing and maintaining a foreign confinement officer training program.
Definitions for which FM 3-39.40 is the proponent publication (the authority) are in boldfaced text and have an asterisk in the glossary. These terms and their definitions will be incorporated into the next revision of FM 1-02.
For other definitions in the text, the term is italicized and the number of the proponent publication follows the definition.
This publication applies to the Active Army, the Army National Guard/the Army National Guard of the United States, and the U.S. Army Reserve unless otherwise stated.
The proponent for this publication is the U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command. Send comments and recommendations on Department of the Army (DA) Form 2028 (Recommended Changes to Publications and Blank Forms) directly to Commandant, U.S. Army Military Police School, ATTN: ATZT-TDD-M, 320 MANSCEN Loop, Suite 270, Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri 65473-8929. Submit an electronic DA Form 2028 or comments and recommendations in the DA Form 2028 format by e-mail to conus.army.mil>. 12 February 2010 FM 3-39.40 ix
I/R operations facilitate the ability to conduct rapid and decisive combat operations; deter, mitigate, and defeat threats to populations that may result in conflict; reverse conditions of human suffering; and build the capacity of a foreign government to effectively care for and govern its population. This includes capabilities to conduct shaping operations across the spectrum of military operations to mitigate and defeat the underlying conditions
for conflict and counter the core motivations that result in support to criminal, terrorist, insurgent, and other destabilizing groups. I/R operations also include the daily incarceration of U.S. military prisoners at facilities throughout the world.
This manual continues the evolution of the I/R function to support the changing nature of OEs. In light of persistent armed conflict and social turmoil throughout the world, the effects on populations remain a compelling issue. The world population will increase from 6 billion to 9 billion in the next two decades, with 95 percent of the growth occurring in the developing world. By 2030, 60 percent of the world’s population will live in urban areas. Coexisting demographically and ethnically, diverse societies will aggressively compete for limited resources.
Typically, overpopulated third world societies suffer from a lack of legitimate and effective enforcement mechanisms, which is generally accepted as one of the cornerstones of a stable society. Stability within a population may eliminate the need for direct military intervention. The goal of military police conducting detainee operations is to provide stability within the population, its institutions, and its infrastructure.
In this rapidly changing and dynamic strategic environment, U.S. forces will compete with local populations for the same space, routes, and resources. The modular force’s ability to positively influence and shape the opinions, attitudes, and behaviors of select populations is critical to tactical, operational, and strategic success.
An adaptive enemy will manipulate populations that are hostile to U.S. intent by instigating mass civil disobedience, directing criminal activity, masking their operations in urban and other complex terrain, maintaining an indistinguishable presence through cultural anonymity, and actively seeking the traditional sanctuary of protected areas as defined by the rules of land warfare.
Such actions will facilitate the dispersal of threat forces, negate technological overmatches, and degrade targeting opportunities. Commanders will use technology and conduct police intelligence operations to influence and control populations, evacuate detainees and, conclusively, transition rehabilitative and reconciliation operations to other functional agencies. The combat identification of friend, foe, or neutral is used to differentiate combatants from noncombatants and friendly forces from threat forces.
FM 3-39.40 is written with the acknowledgement that today’s OEs are much more variable than the environments addressed in previous doctrine. Military police must be prepared to deploy into any OE and conduct I/R operations in support of the commander while dealing with a wide range of threats and other influences. This manual builds on the collective knowledge and wisdom gained through recent operations,
numerous lessons learned, doctrine revisions, and the deliberate process of informed reasoning throughout the Army. It is rooted in time-tested principles and fundamentals, while accommodating new technologies and organizational changes.
This iteration of FM 3-39.40 has been driven by a lack of existing doctrine for the rehabilitation and reconciliation of detainees and changes in OEs, the Army structure, and Army and joint doctrine.
Changes not already mentioned above that have directly affected this manual include the—
• Integration of I/R operations within the overarching counterinsurgency or irregular warfare efforts of current operations.
• Development of terms of reference for detainee typology and standardization of procedures for detainee assessment.
Note. Recent decisions by the Executive Branch have adjusted the typology in JP 3-63. Introduction x FM 3-39.40 12 February 2010
• Implementation of standardized programs and methods for rehabilitation, reconciliation, and repatriation of detainees.
• Planning, employment, and sustainment of military police capabilities in support of all echelons while conducting I/R operations.
• Alignment of I/R operations with the sustainment warfighting function.
• Technological and doctrinal updates to material in other publications.
The foundations of military police operations provided in this manual, together with related military police doctrine, will support the actions and decisions of commanders at all levels. Like FM 3-39, this manual is not meant to be a substitute for thought and initiative among military police leaders and Soldiers.
No matter how robust the doctrine or advanced the military police capabilities and systems, it is the military police Soldier who must understand the OE, recognize shortfalls, and adapt to the situation on the ground. It is the adaptable and professional military police Soldiers of the Military Police Corps Regiment who are most important to the future and must successfully perform their basic skills to accomplish the mission, with or without technology assistance. 12 February 2010 FM 3-39.40 1-1
Internment and Resettlement Operations and the
I/R operations include a complex set of activities with diverse requirements that
require clear and concise guidelines, policies, and procedures to ensure success. They
are present to one degree or another in every OE. (For a greater understanding of the
OE, its variables, and the effect of I/R operations on the OE see FM 3-0 and
FM 3-39.) Military police leaders and Soldiers conducting I/R operations must
maintain task proficiency for every category of detainee, U.S. military prisoner, and
DC to ensure adherence to relevant standards for each. The expanding complexity
and challenging nature of I/R operations must be appreciated and understood. This
chapter defines the objectives and principles of I/R operations and describes U.S.
policies on the protection and care of all detainees, U.S. military prisoners, and DCs.
It emphasizes the fundamental requirement for the humane treatment of all persons
captured, held, assisted, or otherwise under the control of DOD personnel (military,
civilian, or contractor), regardless of their individual status. This chapter provides key
definitions set forth by Geneva Convention I for the Amelioration of the Condition of
the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field (GWS), Geneva Convention II
for the Amelioration of the Condition of Wounded, Sick and Shipwrecked Members
of Armed Forces at Sea (GWS SEA), Geneva Convention III Relative to the
Treatment of Prisoners of War (GPW), and Geneva Convention IV Relative to the
Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War (GC); the Hague Conventions;
Department of Defense directives (DODDs), Department of Defense instructions
(DODI), and policies; Army regulations (ARs); and the Uniform Code of Military
Justice (UCMJ). It also explains the diverse nature of I/R populations that military
police will encounter and specific requirements for various I/R operations.
AR 190-47 stipulates that U.S. military prisoners have additional standards of care
given their specific rights as U.S. citizens and will be confined separately from
detainees. Specific detainee classifications do not preclude protections granted
according to AR 190-8, DODD 2310.01E, DODD 2311.01E, DODD 3115.09, and
the Geneva Conventions. (See JP 3-63 for more information on detainee operations.)
1-1. I/R operations include the two major categories of internment operations and resettlement operations.
They are further refined to focus on specific types of detainees and U.S. military prisoners while
discriminating between CIs included as part of internment operations and those DCs that may be retained
as part of resettlement operations. (See chapter 10.) Figure 1-1, page 1-2, highlights the different categories
of I/R populations.
Internment and Resettlement Operations and the Operational Environment
12 February 2010 FM 3-39.40 1-3
policy applies from the moment they are under the control of U.S. armed forces until they are released,
repatriated, or resettled. U.S. military prisoners will be released via one of following three methods:
z Prisoners without discharges will be returned to their units for duty or administrative discharge
proceedings after they have completed their sentence to confinement.
z Prisoner may be paroled (early release with conditions).
z Prisoners may be under mandatory, supervised release (release at the end of confinement, but
with conditions tantamount to parole).
1-4. AR 190-8 and DODD 2310.01E articulate policy for I/R operations. AR 190-8 embodies U.S.
military obligations drawn from, in part, the Geneva Conventions, Hague Conventions, Convention
Relating to the Status of Refugees, Geneva Protocol I Relating to the Protection of Victims of International
Armed Conflicts, and current North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) standardization agreements.
Guidance for U.S. military prisoners is presented in AR 190-47 and DODD 1325.04.
Note. The United States has signed, but not ratified, Geneva Protocol I and Protocol II relating to
the Protection of Victims of Non-International Armed Conflicts to the Geneva Conventions and,
therefore, is not explicitly bound by their terms. U.S. laws and policies will apply while the U.S.
continues to meet the obligations and intent of the Geneva Conventions.
1-5. Allied joint publication (AJP)-2.5 prescribes concepts and procedures for the control and
administration of I/R populations by U.S. armed forces operating in Europe under NATO guidelines and
outside the European theater in coordination with one or more of the NATO allies. The information in
FM 3-39.40 supports AJP-2.5. AJP-2.5 provides—
z Standardized terms and definitions relating to I/R populations.
z Procedures for using DA Form 4237-R (Detainee Personnel Record).
z Procedures for handling I/R populations, their personal property, and their money.
1-6. The following objectives of I/R operations pertain to I/R populations:
z Providing humane treatment.
z Evacuating promptly to a safe area.
z Providing opportunities for intelligence exploitation.
z Integrating evacuation, control, and administration procedures.
z Improving subsequent intelligence, evidentiary, and judicial processes.
z Providing critical information to determine each individual’s status.
z Increasing accuracy in property accountability to reduce claims against the United States.
z Facilitating final disposition.
z Providing secure detention and efficient care.
1-7. Military police units are specifically organized and trained to perform a variety of missions across
the range of I/R operations. While all military police units have an ability to perform I/R operations, those
identified as I/R organizations are specifically focused and trained to perform all missions associated with
this military police function. Military police are uniquely suited to perform I/R operations because of skills
developed via their specific technical training and experience gained through the execution of day-to-day
law enforcement missions and the execution of confinement duties at U.S. military corrections facilities.
The fundamental principles of these military police missions are directly applicable to the I/R mission.
These principles include the following:
z Humane treatment. Military police are well trained in the law of land warfare, applicable U.S.
laws and regulations, and DOD/Army policies. All detainees (to include U.S. military prisoners)
must be protected from unlawful acts of violence and deprivation of basic human necessities
must be detained in a safe and secure environment. Humane treatment is consistent with Army
and Soldier values and ensures an operational climate that is conducive to population control. Chapter 1
1-4 FM 3-39.40 12 February 2010
While military police must be fair and firm, humane treatment is essential to establish goodwill
among I/R populations and to prevent adversarial relationships between guard forces and I/R
populations. (See paragraph 1-29 and appendix D more complete definition of standards for
humane treatment.) Standards for humane treatment in this FM are derived from the substantive
provisions of the Geneva Conventions that provide for the protection of noncombatants, who
deserve to be respected, and deserve to be protected at all times.
z Close contact.. The very nature of I/R operations places Soldiers in close contact with I/R
populations. In one scenario, Soldiers may be in continuous contact or near large displaced
populations that contain persons who are tired and hungry, may have lost their families or
possessions, and/or are facing an uncertain future. In another scenario, I/R operations may place
Soldiers in continuous contact with or near insurgents, terrorists, or criminals who will exploit
every opportunity to escape and kill or injure U.S. personnel or multinational partners.
z Care, custody, and control. I/R operations require detailed, advanced planning and execution to
provide responsive and thorough care, custody, and control of large I/R populations. Military
police and other U.S. armed forces must plan, procure, and provide the necessary resources to
care for I/R populations, to include subsistence, clothing, hygiene, shelter, and transport to
appropriate locations. Military police provide direct supervision and/or control of assisted,
detained, or interned persons to ensure their control, health, welfare, and safety. They use their
experience and exercise appropriate authority and measured force (using necessary lawful
restrictive measures) to mitigate unlawful or inappropriate actions of others, prevent self-harm,
and protect persons under their control.
z Accountability. U.S. armed forces are accountable for I/R populations, property, evidence, and
related documents from the moment of capture until they are released, resettled, repatriated, or
transferred to another authority. During I/R operations, Department of Defense (DD) Form 2745
(Enemy Prisoner of War Capture Tag) or the subsequent issuance of an internment serial
number (ISN) provides the only authorized serial number to be used to track detainees and their
property, evidence, and related documents. Accountability must be maintained throughout all
activities required for custody; property and evidence control; records management; database
management; investigations through legal disposition; and reporting to theater, national, and
international organizations (IOs) according to international and U.S. laws, regulations, and
z Segregation. I/R populations include numerous types or groups of individuals that must be
segregated for a variety of reasons. I/R populations are segregated based on their legal status
(according to DOD and Army policies) and their gender. Juveniles within the I/R population are
typically segregated from the general population. Detainees may also be segregated by ethnic
and family groups and further segregated to protect vulnerable individuals. Additionally,
detainees may be categorized by behavior (cooperative, neutral, or combative) to accurately
resource guards and facilities. Individuals within the I/R population may also be segregated to
prevent self-harm. Although segregation may not be requested or conducted for the purpose of
facilitating interrogation, interrogators may interrogate detainees who have been properly
segregated. (See DODD 3115.09.)
z Minimum force. Military police, guards, and security personnel must use the minimum level of
force necessary to protect themselves and others, prevent escapes, or prevent persons from
self-harm. I/R facility commanders carefully balance using applied force when an unlawful
activity or civil disturbance occurs, violence escalates, or an escape attempt occurs. Military
police, guards, and security personnel must apply a measured response when confronting violent
and/or noncompliant I/R populations. Minimum force also applies when using restraints.
Individuals who pose an imminent escape risk or are identified as a potential threat to
themselves or others may need to be restrained to prevent them from escaping or committing
acts of violence. The level of restraint required varies with each situation. In the most severe
circumstances, restraining individuals may involve applying restraints to fully immobilize them.
In less severe circumstances, restraining an individual may involve using verbal commands, such
as “Halt.” Restraints should only be applied to mitigate actual risks. Restraining for any other Internment and Resettlement Operations and the Operational Environment
12 February 2010 FM 3-39.40 1-5
purpose may be counterproductive to effective I/R operations and may not be in compliance with
At no time should restraints be used as punishment.
1-8. Key personnel category terms are defined in the following paragraphs. These terms include detainees
and their subcategories, U.S. military prisoners, and DCs and their subcategories. For the purposes of this
manual, I/R populations refer to detainees, U.S. military prisoners, and DCs.
1-9. Detainee is a term used to refer to any person captured or otherwise detained by an armed force.
(JP 3-63) Detainees may also include enemy combatants (EPWs and members of armed groups), RP, and
CIs. (See DODD 2310.01E.) Detainees do not include personnel being held for law enforcement purposes,
except where the U.S. is the occupying power.
1-10. A CI is a civilian who is interned during armed conflict, occupation, or other military operation for
security reasons, for protection, or because he or she committed an offense against the detaining power. (JP
3-63) CIs, unless they have committed acts for which they are considered unlawful combatants, generally
qualify for protected status according to the GC, which also establishes procedures that must be observed
when depriving such civilians of their liberty. CIs are to be accommodated separately from EPWs and
persons deprived of liberty for any other reason.
1-11. Protected persons are persons protected by the Geneva Convention who find themselves, in case of a
conflict or occupation, in the hands of a party to the conflict or occupying power of which they are not
nationals. (AR 190-8). Protected persons who are interned for imperative reasons of security are also
known as CIs. Protected persons under the Geneva Conventions include—
z Hors de combat (refers to the prohibition of attacking enemy personnel who are “out of
z Detainees (combatants and CIs).
z Wounded and sick in the field and at sea.
Note. If protected persons are detained as spies or saboteurs or are suspected of or engaged in
activities hostile to the security of the state or occupying power, they may be interned or
imprisoned. In such cases, they retain their status as a protected person and are granted the full
rights and privileges of protected persons.
1-12. RP are enemy medical personnel and medical staff administrators who are engaged in the search for,
collection, transport, or treatment of the wounded or sick, or the prevention of disease; chaplains attached
to enemy armed forces; and staff of National Red Cross Societies and that of other volunteer aid societies,
duly recognized and authorized by their governments to assist medical service personnel of their own
armed forces, provided they are exclusively engaged in the search for, or the collection, transport or
treatment of wounded or sick, or in the prevention of disease, and provided that the staff of such societies
are subject to military laws and regulations. (JP 3-63) Chapter 1
1-6 FM 3-39.40 12 February 2010
1-13. RP is a special category for medical personnel and chaplains because of their special skills and
training. These individuals may be retained by the detaining power to aid other detainees, preferably those
of the armed forces to which they belong. (See FM 27-10.) The Geneva Conventions require that RP
receive, at a minimum, the benefits and protection given to those with EPW status. The Geneva
Conventions require that they be granted the facilities necessary to provide medical care and religious
ministry services to the I/R population. (For a complete discussion on RP, see AR 190-8.)
1-14. Privileges and considerations extended to RP because of their profession include—
z Additional correspondence privileges for chaplains and senior retained medical personnel.
z All facilities necessary to provide detainees with medical care, spiritual assistance, and welfare
z Authority and means of transportation for periodic visits to other I/R facilities and to hospitals
outside the RP I/R facility to carry out their medical, spiritual, or welfare duties.
z Restriction of work assignments to only those medical or religious duties that they are qualified
z Assignment to quarters separate from those of other detainees when possible.
1-15. An enemy combatant is, in general, a person engaged in hostilities against the United States or its
coalition partners during an armed conflict. (JP 3-63) Enemy combatant includes EPWs and members of
1-16. Enemy combatants are divided as follows:
z An enemy prisoner of war is a detained person who, while engaged in combat under orders
of his or her government, was captured by the armed forces of the enemy.
z Member of an armed group is a person who engages in or supports acts against the United
States or its multinational partners in violation of the laws and customs of war during an
armed conflict that do not meet the criteria of a prisoner of war as defined within the
Geneva Convention Relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War. Members of armed
groups are not entitled to combatant immunity and will be treated as CIs until, or unless,
otherwise directed by competent authorities.
1-17. EPWs are persons defined in the GPW as—
z Members of the armed forces of a party to the conflict and members of militias or volunteer
corps forming part of such armed forces.
z Members of other militias and members of other volunteer corps, including those of organized
resistance movements, belonging to a party to the conflict and operating in or outside their own
territory, even if this territory is occupied, provided that such militias or volunteer corps,
including such organized resistance movements, fulfill the following conditions:
That of being commanded by a person responsible for his or her subordinates.
That of having a fixed distinctive sign recognizable at a distance.
That of carrying arms openly.
That of conducting their operations according to the laws and customs of war.
z Members of regular armed forces who profess allegiance to a government or an authority not
recognized by the detaining power.
z Persons who accompany the armed forces without actually being members thereof, such as
civilian members of military aircraft crews, war correspondents, supply contractors, members of
labor units or of services responsible for the welfare of the armed forces, provided that they have
received authorization from the armed forces which they accompany, who will provide them for
that purpose with an identity card similar to the annexed model.
z Members of crews, including masters, pilots and apprentices, of the merchant marine and the
crews of civil aircraft of the parties to the conflict, who do not benefit by more favorable
treatment under any other provisions of international laws. Internment and Resettlement Operations and the Operational Environment
12 February 2010 FM 3-39.40 1-7
z Inhabitants of a unoccupied territory, who on the approach of the enemy spontaneously take up
arms to resist the invading forces, without having had time to form themselves into regular
armed units, provided they carry arms openly and respect the laws and customs of war.
Note. EPW status is the default status for detainees. All detainees will be treated according to the
GPW until their status is determined by a military tribunal or other competent authority. The
United States uses the term EPW to identify an individual under the custody and/or control or the
DOD according to Articles 4 and 5 of the GPW. (See JP 3-63.) The United States reserves the
GPW term prisoner of war to identify its own or multinational armed forces that have been
1-18. A U.S. military prisoner is a person sentenced to confinement or death during a court-martial
and ordered into confinement by a competent authority, whether or not the convening authority has
approved the sentence. A U.S. military prisoner who is pending trial by court-martial and is placed into
confinement by a competent authority is a pretrial prisoner. (See chapter 7.)
1-19. The term dislocated civilian is a broad term that includes a displaced person, an evacuee, an expellee,
an internally displaced person, a migrant, a refugee, or a stateless person. (JP 3-57) DCs are individuals
who leave their homes for various reasons, such as an armed conflict or a natural disaster, and whose
movement and physical presence can hinder military operations. They most likely require some degree of
aid, such as medicine, food, shelter, or clothing. DCs may not be native to the area or to the country in
which they reside. (See chapter 10.) The following DC subcategories are also defined in JP 3-57:
z Displaced person. A displaced person is a civilian who is involuntarily outside the national
boundaries of his or her country. (JP 1-02) Displaced persons may have been dislocated because
of a political, geographical, environmental, or threat situation.
z Evacuee. An evacuee is a civilian removed from a place of residence by military direction for
reasons of personal security or the requirements of the military situation. (JP 3-57)
z Expellee. An expellee is a civilian outside the boundaries of the country of his or her nationality
or ethnic origin who is being forcibly repatriated to that country or to a third country for political
or other purposes. (JP 3-57)
z Internally displaced person. An internally displaced person is any person who has left their
residence by reason of real or imagined danger but has not left the territory of their own country.
Internally displaced persons may have been forced to flee their homes for the same reasons as
refugees, but have not crossed an internationally recognized border.
z Migrant. A migrant is a person who (1) belongs to a normally migratory culture who may cross
national boundaries, or (2) has fled his or her native country for economic reasons rather than
fear of political or ethnic persecution. (JP 3-57)
z Refugee. A refugee is a person, who by reason of real or imagined danger, has left their home
country or country of their nationality and is unwilling or unable to return.
z Stateless person. A stateless person is a civilian who has been denationalized or whose country
of origin cannot be determined or who cannot establish a right to the nationality claimed.
1-20. If there is any doubt whether personnel captured or detained by the U.S. armed forces belong to any
of the detainee categories previously described in paragraph 1-17, and Article 4, GPW, such personnel
receive the same treatment to which EPWs are entitled until their status has been determined by a
competent military tribunal or some other competent authority. (See AR 190-8.) Captured or detained
personnel are presumed to be EPWs immediately upon capture if their status is unmistakable (such as an Chapter 1
1-8 FM 3-39.40 12 February 2010
armed, uniformed enemy). The final status of a CI may not be determined until they arrive at a TIF. Until
such time, treat all CIs as EPWs.
Note. It is essential to understand the distinction between the terms treatment and status. To treat
a detainee as an EPW does not mean that the detainee has the actual status of an EPW as set
forth in the Geneva Conventions.
ARTICLE 5 TRIBUNALS
1-21. Article 5 tribunals are conducted according to Article 5, GPW. An Article 5 tribunal is an
administrative hearing that is controlled by a board of officers and determines the actual status of a
detainee. This tribunal can take place anywhere, but it most commonly takes place echelons above the
brigade combat team (BCT), most generally at the TIF or SIF. The tribunal determines the status of
individuals who do not appear to be entitled to prisoner of war status, but have committed a belligerent act
or have engaged in hostile activity to aid enemy forces and/or assert that they are entitled to treatment as an
Note. Sample procedures with additional (optional) procedures for conducting an Article 5
tribunal are included in appendix D. Optional procedures are intended to add appropriate due
process measures that are not required by laws or regulations, but improve the transparency and
overall fairness of the tribunal as time and additional resources are available to the convening
authority. The tribunal is an administrative board process and is not intended to become an
1-22. EPWs have GPW protections from the time they are under the control of U.S. armed forces until
their release or repatriation. Any detainee subject to an Article 5 tribunal will be provided and entitled to
z Notice of the tribunal (in a language he or she understands).
z Opportunity to present evidence at the tribunal.
z Three-person administrative tribunal.
z Preponderance of the evidence standard.
z Written appeal to the convening authority upon request.
1-23. The convening authority of the Article 5 tribunal will be a commander exercising general
court-martial convening authority, unless such authority has been properly delegated. According to
AR 190-8 and DOD policies, a competent tribunal will—
z Convene within a reasonable time after doubt arises regarding EPW status, normally within 15
days. Processing time for the tribunal procedures should not normally exceed 30 days. Shorter
processing times are encouraged, particularly when there is a potential for a status change from
EPW to CI or a members of an armed group.
z Determine the status of any individual who does not appear to be entitled to EPW status, but has
committed a belligerent act or has engaged in hostile activities to aid enemy armed forces and
asserts that he or she is entitled to treatment as an EPW.
z Be composed of three commissioned officers (one a field grade). The senior officer will serve as
president of the tribunal and another nonvoting officer (preferably a judge advocate) will serve
as the recorder. Internment and Resettlement Operations and the Operational Environment
12 February 2010 FM 3-39.40 1-9
Note. A separate system of combatant status review boards have been adopted by laws and
regulations to review the status of members of armed groups designated under approved DOD
procedures. Recent executive decisions may provide further directives regarding the processing
and disposition of this category of personnel. Detainees who have been determined by a
competent tribunal not to be entitled to EPW status will not be executed, imprisoned, or
otherwise penalized without further proceedings to determine what acts they have committed
and what penalty should be imposed. Commanders should notify the combatant command if a
U.S. citizen or resident alien has been captured or has requested a tribunal.
APPEALS AND PERIODIC REVIEWS OF CIVILIAN INTERNEES
1-24. CIs may be interned or placed in assigned residences only when the security of the detaining power
makes it absolutely necessary or there are imperative reasons of security of the occupying power. (See GC,
Articles 27, 42, and 78.) The internment of civilians is a serious deprivation of liberty for the civilian
population. Accordingly, each CI—
z Is released by the detaining power as soon as the reasons which necessitated his internment no
longer exist (Article 132, GC).
z Receives an order of internment (in a language the CI understands) as directed in AR 190-8.
This order must be provided without delay, usually within 72 hours of capture/internment.
z Receives notice (in a language the CI understands) of the right to appeal the internment or
placement in an assigned residence.
z Has the right to appeal the internment or placement in an assigned residence. This appeal should
receive proper consideration and a decision should be rendered as soon as possible by an
appropriate administrative tribunal.
1-25. The convening authority of the administrative tribunal will be a commander exercising general
court-martial convening authority, unless such authority has been properly delegated. A competent CI
review tribunal will—
z Convene within a reasonable time after the appeal is requested (normally within 72 hours).
Processing time for the tribunal procedures will not normally exceed 14 days. Shorter processing
times are encouraged, particularly when there is a potential for a status change from CI to
member of an armed group or common criminal.
z Is composed of three commissioned officers (a field grade). The senior officer will serve as
president of the tribunal. Another nonvoting officer (preferably a judge advocate) will serve as
1-26. Any detainee being subject to a CI review tribunal will be provided and entitled to a—
z Notice of the tribunal (in a language he or she understands).
z Opportunity to present evidence at the tribunal.
z Three-person administrative tribunal.
z Preponderance of the evidence standard.
z Written appeal to the convening authority upon request.
1-27. In the event that the decision of internment or placement is upheld, the tribunal has an affirmative
duty (at least every 6 months) to periodically review the lawfulness of the internment or placement.
Recognizing the gravity of continued internment as a deprivation of liberty of the civilian population,
convening authorities are encouraged to incorporate more due process into the procedures for all periodic
review proceedings. Detainees who have been determined by a CI review tribunal not to be entitled to
release from internment or placement in an assigned residence will not be executed, imprisoned, or
otherwise penalized without further judicial proceedings to determine what acts they have committed and
what penalty should be imposed.
1-10 FM 3-39.40 12 February 2010
Note. The preceding procedures are the minimum standards for conducting a CI review tribunal
as resources and time permit. For subsequent reviews, the convening authority may adopt
additional procedures for these tribunals.
GENERAL PROTECTION AND CARE OF DETAINEES, U.S.
MILITARY PRISONERS, AND DISLOCATED CIVILIANS
1-28. DOD personnel conducting I/R operations will always treat detainees, U.S. military prisoners, and
DCs under their custody or care humanely, no matter what their individual status is under U.S. or
international laws and no matter how the conflict or crisis is characterized. The Geneva Conventions
provide internationally recognized humanitarian standards for the treatment of detainees. (See appendix D.)
U.S. military prisoners confined in a battlefield environment are also entitled to the constitutional
protections afforded to every citizen of the United States. Some DCs may be refugees covered by the
Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, which establishes minimum standards for the treatment of
refugees and specifies the obligations of the HN and the refugees.
HUMANE TREATMENT POLICIES
1-29. DODD 2310.01E establishes overarching DOD detainee policies, including detainee treatment
policies. DODD 2310.01E applies to all detainee operations conducted during armed conflicts, however
such conflicts are characterized in all other military operations. The policies are applicable to—
z DOD personnel (civilian and military).
z DOD contractors assigned to or supporting the DOD components engaging in, conducting,
participating in, or supporting detainee operations.
z Non-DOD personnel as a condition of permitting access to internment facilities or to detainees
under DOD control.
1-30. The humane treatment of detainees by U.S. personnel is paramount to successful operations and an
absolute moral and legal requirement. All DOD personnel will comply with the law of war at all times.
Personnel conducting detainee operations will apply at a minimum and without regard to a detainee’s legal
status, the standards articulated in Common Article 3 to the Geneva Conventions. Any persons detained
will be afforded the protections of Common Article 3 to the Geneva Conventions from the moment they are
under the control of DOD personnel until their release, transfer, or repatriation.
Note. Certain categories of detainees, such as EPWs, enjoy protections under the law of war in
addition to the minimum standards prescribed in Common Article 3 to the Geneva Conventions.
DETAINEE TREATMENT POLICIES
1-31. In addition to the standards required under the Geneva Conventions and the law of war, the following
minimum standards for detainee treatment are required by DODD 2310.01E:
z Detainees will be provided adequate food, drinking water, shelter, clothing, and medical
treatment. Detainees will be provided the same standard of health care as U.S. forces in the
z Detainees will be granted free exercise of religion that is consistent with the requirements of
z Detainees will be respected as human beings. They will be protected against threats or acts of
violence, including rape, forced prostitution, assault, theft, public curiosity, bodily injury, and
reprisals. They will not be subjected to medical or scientific experiments. Detainees will not be
subjected to sensory deprivation. This list is not all-inclusive. Internment and Resettlement Operations and the Operational Environment
12 February 2010 FM 3-39.40 1-11
z The punishment of detainees known to have, or suspected of having, committed serious offenses
will be administered according to due process of law and under legally constituted authority.
z The inhumane treatment of detainees is prohibited and is not justified by the stress of combat or
U.S.MILITARY PRISONER POLICIES
1-32. The same standards of humane treatment apply to the battlefield confinement of U.S. military
prisoners as apply to other I/R operations. In addition, U.S. military prisoners have specific constitutional
rights and protections afforded by their status as U.S. persons. As Soldiers, they enjoy rights and
protections under the UCMJ and the Manual for Courts-Martial (MCM). U.S. military prisoners will not be
interned with detainees or DCs. (See chapter 7 and AR 190-47.)
DISLOCATED CIVILIAN POLICIES
1-33. DCs who have moved in response to a natural or man-made disaster have the following in common:
z They are unable or unwilling to stay in their homes.
z Their physical presence can affect military operations.
z They require some degree of aid, to include many of the basic human necessities.
1-34. DCs are to be provided humane care and treatment consistent with the Geneva Conventions and
international laws, regardless of the categorization given to them by higher authority.
1-35. Some DCs may be refugees covered by the Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees and
Article 73, Geneva Protocol I (wherein stateless persons or refugees are protected persons within the
meaning of Part I and Part III, GC). The Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees provides a general
and universally applicable definition of the term refugee and establishes minimum standards for the
treatment and protection of refugees, specifying the obligations of the HN and the refugees to one another.
Among the important provisions of this convention is the principle of nonrefoulement (Article 33), which
prohibits the return or expulsion of a refugee to the territory of a state where his life, freedom, or personal
security would be in jeopardy. I/R personnel conducting DC operations that involve refugees will not
repatriate refugees until directed by applicable governmental organizations through the chain of command.
1-36. Refugees have the right to safe asylum and basic civil, economic, and social rights. For example,
adult refugees should have the right to work and refugee children should be able to attend school. In certain
circumstances (such as large-scale inflows of refugees), asylum states may feel obliged to restrict certain
rights. The UN High Commissioner for Refugees assists to fill gaps when no resources are available from
the government of the country of asylum or other agencies. (See the UN High Commissioner for Refugees
Handbook for the Military on Humanitarian Operations.) When possible, units conducting I/R operations
involving refugees should establish provisions for the protection of these rights that are consistent with
military necessity and available resources.
ABUSE OR MISTREATMENT
1-37. All DOD personnel (military, civilian, and contractor) must correct, report, and document any
incident or situation that might constitute the mistreatment or abuse of detainees, U.S. military prisoners, or
DCs. Acts and omissions that constitute inhumane treatment may be violations of U.S. laws, U.S. policies,
and the law of war. These violations require immediate action to correct. If a violation is ongoing, Soldiers
have an obligation to take action to stop the violation and report it to their chain of command.
1-38. All personnel who observe or have knowledge of possible abuse or mistreatment will immediately
report the incident through their chain of command or supervision. Reports may also be submitted to the
military police, a judge advocate, a chaplain, or an inspector general, who will then forward the report
through the recipient’s chain of command or supervision. Reports made to other officials will be accepted
and immediately forwarded through the recipient’s chain of command or supervision, and an information
copy will be provided to the appropriate combatant commander. Chapter 1
1-12 FM 3-39.40 12 February 2010
1-39. Any commander or supervisor who obtains credible information about actual or possible abuse or
mistreatment involving personnel who are not assigned to a combatant commander will immediately report
the incident through command or supervisory channels to the responsible combatant commander or to
another appropriate authority (criminal investigation division [CID], inspector general) for allegations. In
the latter instance, an information report is sent to the combatant commander with responsibility for the
geographic area where the alleged incident occurred.
AGENCIES CONCERNED WITH INTERNMENT AND
1-40. External involvement in I/R missions is a fact of life for military police organizations. Some
government and government-sponsored entities that may be involved in I/R missions include—
z International agencies.
International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC).
International Organization of Migration.
z U.S. agencies.
Local U.S. embassy.
Department of Homeland Security.
U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE).
Federal Emergency Management Agency.
1-41. The U.S. Army National Detainee Reporting Center (NDRC), supported by theater detainee
reporting centers (TDRCs), detainee accountability, including reporting to the ICRC central tracing
1-42. There are also numerous private relief organizations, foreign and domestic, that will likely be
involved in the humanitarian aspects of I/R operations. Likewise, the news media normally provides
extensive coverage of I/R operations. Adding to the complexity of these operations is the fact that DOD is
often not the lead agency. For instance, the DOD could be tasked in a supporting role, with the Department
of State or some other agency in the lead. (See appendix E.)
1-43. The most effective way for U.S. armed forces to understand the skills, knowledge, and capabilities of
nonmilitary organizations is through the Military Education System and through the establishment and/or
maintenance of a liaison once deployed to the operational area. In addition, having those organizations
provide briefings on their capabilities and limitations to each other and to the military is an effective
method to gain understanding on both sides to support the mission.
1-44. Civilian organizations are responsible for a wide range of activities encompassing humanitarian aid;
human rights; the protection of minorities, refugees, and displaced persons; legal assistance; medical care;
reconstruction of the local infrastructure; agriculture; education; and general project funding. It is critical
importance that commanders and their staffs understand the mandate, role, structure, method, and
principles of these organizations. It is impossible to establish an effective relationship with them without
1-45. Civilian organizations may already be providing humanitarian-assistance or some type of relief in the
operational area when I/R operations are planned and implemented. (See appendix E.) The principal
coordinating federal agency is the U.S. Agency for International Development. Civilian organizations are
required to register with the U.S. Agency for International Development to operate under the auspices of
the United States.
1-46. A detailed description of nonmilitary U.S. government agencies typically involved in I/R operations
is contained in appendix E. The non-U.S. government organizations most likely to be encountered during
I/R operations are international humanitarian organizations. These are impartial, neutral, and independent Internment and Resettlement Operations and the Operational Environment
12 February 2010 FM 3-39.40 1-13
organizations whose mission is to assist and protect victims of conflict. This group includes organizations
such as the ICRC, the International Federation of the Red Cross (IFRC), and the Red Crescent Societies.
They carefully guard their neutrality and do not desire to be associated with or dependent on the military
for fear of losing their special status in the international community that allows them to fulfill their mission.
The two principal types of non-U.S. government civilian organizations are—
z IOs. IOs are established by international agreements and operate at the nation-to-nation level.
IOs include the UN, the UN Development Program, the UN Office for the Coordination of
Humanitarian Affairs, the UN World Food Program, and the International Medical Corps. The
UN High Commissioner for Refugees is a key player in international detainee operations.
z Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). NGOs are voluntary organizations that are not
normally funded by governments. They are primarily nonprofit organizations that self-define
their missions and philosophies. This independence from political interests is the key attribute of
NGOs and can be a great benefit in rebuilding relations when political dialog has failed or is not
practicable. They are often highly professional in their field, extremely well motivated, and
prepared to take physical risks in appalling conditions. Examples of NGOs include Save the
Children, Medecins Sans Frontières (Doctors without Borders), Catholic Relief Services, and
Catholic Bishops Council. NGOs are classified as mandated or nonmandated as described
A mandated NGO has been officially recognized by the lead IO in a crisis and is authorized
to work in the affected area. The ICRC is an example of a mandated NGO.
A nonmandated NGO has no official recognition or authorization and, therefore, works as a
private concern. These organizations may be subcontracted by an IO or mandated NGO. In
other cases, they obtain funds from private enterprises and donors. Catholic Relief Services
is an example of a nonmandated NGO.
1-47. The UN is involved in the entire spectrum of humanitarian-assistance operations, from suffering
prevention to relief operations. Typically, UN relief agencies establish independent networks to execute
their humanitarian-relief operations. The UN system delegates as much as possible to the agency’s
elements located in the field; supervisory and support networks are traced from those field officers back to
UN headquarters. Military planners must familiarize themselves with UN objectives so that these
objectives are considered in planning and executing military operations. (See appendix E.)
1-48. The primary power duty of the protecting power is to monitor whether detainees are receiving
humane treatment as required by international laws. A neutral state or a humanitarian organization, such as
the ICRC, is usually designated as a protecting power. Representatives or delegates of a protecting power
are authorized to visit detainees and interview them regarding the conditions of their detention, their
welfare, and their rights. Depending on the circumstances, they may conduct interviews without witnesses.
Such visits may not be prohibited except for reasons of imperative military necessity.
INTERNATIONAL RED CROSS AND RED CRESCENT MOVEMENT
1-49. The ICRC, IFRC, and individual national Red Cross and Red Crescent organizations make up the
International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement. These groups are distinctly different and have
separate mandates and staff organizations. They should not be considered to be one organization. Although
the ICRC was founded in Switzerland, it has a long and distinguished history of worldwide operation as a
neutral intermediary in armed conflicts. The mission of the ICRC is to ensure that victims of conflict
receive appropriate protection and assistance within the scope of the Geneva Conventions and Geneva
Note. The Red Crescent Movement is found in predominately Muslim countries and has the
same goals and mission as the Red Cross Movement. Chapter 1
1-14 FM 3-39.40 12 February 2010
CIVILIAN LEAD AGENCIES
1-50. A civilian lead agency is an agency that has been designated by the appropriate IO to coordinate the
activities of the civilian organizations that participate in an operation. It is normally a major UN agency
such as the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. Specific responsibilities of the lead
agency include acting as a point of contact for other agencies and coordinating field activities to avoid
duplication of effort.
PLANNING CONSIDERATIONS FOR INTERNMENT AND
1-51. Proper planning before operations commence is vital. It is also essential that commanders recognize
that conditions for the proper conduct of I/R operations are historically set in the planning phase of
operations. Commanders should establish planning mechanisms that ensure effective consideration of
potential detainee, U.S. military prisoner, or DC issues and the development of plans and procedures to
respond to these issues as early in the planning process as feasible. Commanders should, address at a
z Infrastructure requirements. The commander should analyze the wide array of sustainment
and operational requirements to conduct I/R operations. These requirements begin with the
correct number and type of personnel on the ground to conduct the operation and the
identification, collection, and the management of a sustainment plan to support I/R operations
throughout the joint operations area.
z Security requirements. To the maximum extent possible, I/R facilities will be protected from
the hazards of the battlefield. To protect the I/R population, commanders—
Manage the control of captured protective equipment that could be used to meet
Ensure that when planning for individual protective measures and facility protection, the
potential presence of detainees is considered. As a general rule, detainees should derive the
same benefit from protection measures as do members of the detaining force.
z Use-of-force training. Planning and preparing for the use of force is a necessary element in
maintaining order. Personnel assigned the mission of providing for the control of detainees, U.S.
military prisoners, and DCs and the security of I/R facilities should be issued and trained on
RUF that are specific to that mission. Theater rules of engagement (ROE) remain in effect for
defending an I/R facility from an external threat.
z Safety and evacuation plans. When controlling large I/R populations, commanders must
develop thorough safety and evacuation plans to evacuate, shelter, protect, and guard (as
appropriate) U.S. armed forces personnel and I/R populations from fire, combat hazards, natural
elements, and nonbattle injuries. Safety plans must be incorporated into I/R facility standing
operating procedures (SOPs) and refined through continuous risk assessments and mitigation.
Commanders must ensure that safety and evacuation plans are routinely trained and rehearsed.
z Medical and dental care. I/R facility commanders must consider a wide range of topics when
planning for medical support, to include a credentialed health care provider to monitor the
general health, nutrition, and cleanliness of detainees, U.S. military prisoners, and DCs
(appendix I). The medical facility must provide isolation wards for persons with communicable
diseases and for immunizations. Special consideration may be necessary for behavioral and
dental health support. The Geneva Conventions provide extensive guidance on medical and
dental standards of care for wounded and sick EPWs and CIs.
z Sanitation requirements. Certain sanitation standards must be met to protect the health of all
detainees, U.S. military prisoners, DCs, and U.S. armed forces associated with the facility (such
as disease prevention and facility cleanliness). (See appendix J.) These standards include
providing adequate space within housing units to prevent overcrowding, enforcing food
sanitation procedures, properly disposing of human waste, and conducting pest control activities
as required. The Geneva Conventions provide extensive guidance on sanitation requirements for
EPWs and CIs. Internment and Resettlement Operations and the Operational Environment
12 February 2010 FM 3-39.40 1-15
z Intelligence and interrogation operations. The U.S. armed forces operating the I/R facility
need to plan for human intelligence (HUMINT) collection operations, which require close
cooperation with HUMINT collectors and counterintelligence agents. Further consideration must
be given to ensure that interrogation operations in the facility are conducted according to
applicable U.S. laws and regulations, international laws, operation orders, FRAGOs, and other
operationally specific guidelines (DOD policies). The internment facility commander is
responsible for ensuring proper care and treatment for detainees. (For a detailed discussion of
responsibilities and support relationships dictated by DOD policies and for more information on
HUMINT operations see FM 2-22.3.)
z Strategic reporting. Strategic reporting of detainees and DCs requires adherence to the
Detainee Reporting System (formerly known as the Branch Prisoner of War Information
System) procedures. The timely and accurate reporting of data is critical to ensuring detainee
and DC accountability and compliance with U.S. and international laws. I/R operations are
monitored at the strategic level. Overwatch and strategic accountability of detainees and DCs are
exercised by the Office of the Provost Marshal General (OPMG), NDRC Branch. The basic
element of detainee and DC accountability is the ISN, which is used as the primary means of
identification. ISNs are issued at the TIF. They are also used to link detainees and DCs to
biometric data, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) data, personal property, medical information, and
issued equipment. Military police commanders conducting detainee operations must plan for the
acquisition and issuance of ISNs and maintenance of the Detainee Reporting System, to include
training military police personnel.
z Legal support. I/R operations must comply with the law of war during armed conflicts. Proper
legal support must be considered to ensure that U.S. policies, U.S. laws, and international laws
are observed. Actively involving judge advocate general personnel and expertise at all stages and
in all types of I/R operations is essential. All personnel, regardless of military occupational
specialty (MOS) or branch specialty, must receive I/R training and instruction, relevant to their
role in advance of participating in or supporting detainee operations; I/R-specific training should
be conducted annually thereafter. Training requirements and completion is documented
according to applicable laws and policies. Personnel must receive instruction and complete
training commensurate with their duties, regarding the—
Geneva Conventions and laws, regulations, policies, and other issuances applicable to
Identification and prevention of violations of the Geneva Conventions.
Requirement to report alleged or suspected violations that arise in the course of detainee
z Liaison with external agencies. During the course of I/R operations, it is likely that U.S.
commanders will encounter representatives of various government agencies, IOs, NGOs, and
international humanitarian organizations attempting to assert a role in protecting the interests of
detainees, U.S. military prisoners, or DCs. Commanders must anticipate that these organizations
will request access to I/R populations and will continue to do so throughout the operation. The
ICRC will be given the opportunity to provide its services to detainees (to include detainees at
TIFs). The servicing staff judge advocate is generally the designated command liaison to the
ICRC. (See FM 27-10.) ICRC reports provided to U.S. commanders will be forwarded through
combatant commander channels.
z Transportation requirements. The modes of transportation for movement of detainees, U.S.
military prisoners, and DCs are by foot, wheeled vehicle (preferably bus or truck), rail, air,
inland waterways and sea. Each operation requires unique security and accountability planning
which must closely adhered to and carefully planned. The flow of personnel must be coordinated
with movement control personnel as appropriate. (The movement of detainees is discussed in
z Public affairs. Public affairs planning requires an understanding of the information needs of
Soldiers, the Army community, and the public in matters relating to I/R operations. In the
interest of national security and the protection of I/R populations from public curiosity, I/R
populations will not be photographed or interviewed by the news media. The public affairs Chapter 1
1-16 FM 3-39.40 12 February 2010
officer also facilitates media efforts to cover operations by expediting the flow of complete,
accurate, and timely information.
z Transfers and transitions. The successful end state of I/R operations is the final disposition of
detainees, U.S. military prisoners, and DCs. This may include their transfer, release,
resettlement, or continued detention. The permanent transfer or release of detainees from the
custody of U.S. armed forces to the HN, other multinational forces, or any non-DOD U.S.
government entity requires the approval of the Secretary of Defense or a specified designee. The
permanent transfer of a detainee or DC to a foreign nation may be governed by bilateral
agreements or based on ad hoc arrangements. Any transfer to the HN or a foreign nation will
include assurances that the receiving nation is willing and able to provide adequate care and
treatment that is required by the Geneva Conventions.
1-52. The preceding planning considerations are not all-inclusive. Thorough mission analysis is critical to
determine requirements and establish adequate training plans to ensure success. I/R planning factors are
covered in depth in chapter 5.
MILITARY POLICE CAPABILITIES
1-53. Military police personnel (MOSs 31B and 31E) provide indispensable capabilities required for
conducting of I/R operations. Military police Soldiers hone their skills through I/R-specific training and
complementary training and experience gained in performance of the other four military police functions.
Of the four remaining military police functions, police intelligence operations and law and order operations
provide the greatest complementary technical and tactical capabilities to enhance I/R operations. All
military police personnel receive I/R-specific training and instruction in advance of participating in or
supporting detainee operations and received annually thereafter. Training requirements and completion are
documented according to applicable laws and policies. All military police personnel receive instruction and
complete training equal to their duties regarding the—
z Geneva Conventions and all laws, regulations, policies, and other issuances applicable to
z Identification and prevention of violations of the Geneva Conventions.
z Requirement to report alleged or suspected violations that arise in the course of detainee
1-54. When performing I/R operations, 31B personnel bring a variety of skill sets, inculcated through their
training. These skills include—
z Interpersonal communications.
z Use-of-force guidelines and standards.
z Civil disturbance operations.
z Use of NLWs in any environment.
z Custody, control, and audit maintenance requirements for I/R operations.
z Police investigations.
z Cultural awareness.
1-55. Military police personnel within the 31E MOS are specifically trained to conduct I/R operations
across the full range of potential environments. They provide technical capabilities specific to I/R, making
them the subject matter experts in full-scale I/R operations. These skills include—
z Interaction and use of U.S., third world country, and local national interpreters during I/R
z I/R facility operations (cell blocks, recreation areas, shower areas, latrines, mess areas).
z Safe and proper take-down techniques to ensure the well-being of all personnel involved.
z Proper and effective movement techniques when moving an individual from one location to
z Use of NLWs in any environment.
z Cultural awareness. Internment and Resettlement Operations and the Operational Environment
12 February 2010 FM 3-39.40 1-17
z Riot control measures, to include the use of riot control agents and dispersers.
z Quick-reaction force actions inside and outside the facility.
z Search techniques, to include the use of electronic detection devices.
z Detainee treatment standards and applicable provisions of the law of war.
z Current, approved interrogation techniques.