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Monday, February 13, 2012

Prescott Bush, Joseph P. Kennedy And Hitler's Nazi Party And The Jewish Connection

This Kennedys belonged to the powerful Dál gCais people of Thomond, headed by the O’Briens. They resided in far eastern Clare, northern Limerick, Mayo, and northern Tipperary in an area called Ormond. Originally seated in Glemor, near Killaloe in Co. Clare, they migrated across the river Shannon to Ormond in Co. Tipperary following pressure from other septs in the region (mainly the O'Briens and the McNamaras).

They soon grew in power to become lords in Ormond from the 11th - 16th centuries. The Annals of the Four Masters described them in 1300 to be "the undisputed Lords of Ormond". Placenames such as Coolkennedy and Garrykennedy in Upper Ormond and Killokennedy in Thomond are indicative of their longstanding presence in the region.

The sept split into three branches, the chiefs of which were referred to by their hair colours: don (brown), fionn (blond), and rua (red). St Ruadhan of Lorrha was the special protector of the Kennedys of Ormond. Around 1600, a branch of the sept migrated to Co. Antrim where many Kennedys are still found today.

According to Daithi O'hOgain (Associate Professor at University College Dublin), there is a lineage of Irish Kennedys descended directly from Brian Boru: 'The name Cinneide also continued in the direct O'Brien line. For instance, a branch of the family descended from King Donnchadh, son of Brian Boru, settled in Aherloe in south Tipperary, one section of which had the name Cinneide as a surname. 

Another Cinneide O’Briain, grandson of the same Donnchadh, was a strong opponent of his kinsman, King Toirdhealbhach, and on this account he was assisted by the Connacht king, Aedh O'Ruairc of Breffny, to set up a kingdom of his own on the Meath-Cavan border. This little kingdom was broken up by Toirdhealbhach's army in 1080, and Cinneide O'Briain himself was slain in 1084 at the Battle of Monecronock, near Leixlip in Count Kildare. The connection with the O’Rourkes of Breffny did not end, however, for people bearing the name Cinneide settled in that area of County Leitrim. These were known by the synonym Muimhneach (‘Munster-man’), which is anglicised as the surnames Mimnagh and Minnagh.' (O'hOgain D. (2003) 'Kennedy O'Cinneide', Gill & Macmillan, Dublin pp40–1).

To add to the confusion, there are the Kennedys of nine-county Ulster in the north of Ireland. The Kennedys who settled in Ulster are mostly of Scottish origin from the territories of Galloway and Ayr just across the Irish Sea 20 miles away. Many Scottish Kennedys were planters in Ulster, and many Scots went south to Dublin and mingled with the Irish clan.


Thomond - Tuadh Mumhan, meaning north Munster 
Tuadh Mumhan came into prominence as a separate region within the province of Mumhan (Mumu, Mumhain, et al) in conjunction with a rise in power of the Dál gCais. An ancient origin tradition of the Dál gCais connect them to the Déis Becc (aka Déis Tuaiscirt), a branch of the Déisi who conquered the Thomond region from the Connachta in the 5th century. The Dál gCais initially gained supremacy in the Munster region during the 10th and 11th centuries. Mathghamhain and Brian Boru, both sons of Cinneide (or Cendétigh), were among the first of the the Dál gCais (Dalcassian) who became kings of Munster during this timeframe. The diocese of Killaoe, which was first established at the Synod of Rathbresail in 1111, is often given as "coterminous with the boundaries of the ancient kingdom of Thomond." At that time Killaloe was an area held by the Dál gCais and those most closely 'tributary' to them. This included the territory of the Dál gCaisCorco BaiscinnAradhMúscraige Tíre, and much of Uaithne and Éile.

There are frequent references to "Tuadh Mumhan" in the Irish Annals beginning in the latter 11th century, but as a separate entity representing all of northern Munster an entry for the year 1118 seems to mark a milestone event. In that year, a treaty at Gleann Maidhir (Glanmire) divided the Kingdom of Munster into northern (Tuadh Mumhan) and southern (Des Mumhan) halves, a division apparently running near the border of modern counties Limerick and Cork. The entry in the Annals for 1118 reads, " A hosting by Toirdhealbhach Ua Conchobhair, king of Connacht, and by Murchadh O Maelsechlainn, king of Temhair, along with him, and by Aed O'Ruairc, into Mumha, as far as Glenn-Maghair; and he gave Des-Mumha to Mac Carthaigh, and Tuadh-Mumha to the sons of Diarmaid Ua Briain, and carried off the hostages of each."

With this 12th century division of Munster into two parts, Thomond included the area about the diocese of Killaloe, and additionally encompassed the traditional territorites of Úi FidgeintiUí Chonaill Gabra, Eóghanacht Áine, Éile, Corco Mruadh, the tribes of Uaithne (later held by the Síl Cennétich, and much of Eóghanacht Caisel and Ciarraige Luachra.   (reference: Ancient Munster)

By the early 13th century, through the encroachment of the Anglo-Norman Butler family and others into eastern Thomond (north Tipperary, east Limerick and south Offaly), part of which came to be known as Ormond or East Munster, the kingdom of Thomond was greatly reduced. Further encroachment reduced its size to more of the immediate area of modern county Clare.

Tribes and Territories of Northern Munster

Dál gCais     (kings of Munster and Thomond)

Dál gCais was originally a small kingdom ruled by the ancestors Brian Borúmha, including the eastern portion of the present County Clare. Brian's ancestors are said to derive from the sons of Cas, 7th in descent from Ailell Aulum (or Oilill Olum), and included Caisin (Ui Caisin, e.g. MacNamara), Aonghus Ceannathrach (Cenel Cuallachta), and Blat or Blod (Ui Blait or Ui Bloid, e.g. O'Brien, O'Kennedy), among others. The power of the O'Brien ancestors, lords of Dál gCais, increased greatly in 10th and 11th centuries, to the point they became an important dynasty within all of Munster and culminating with Brian Ború, son of Cendétigh, recognized as the dominant king in Ireland by the turn of the 11th century. Brian's nickname, Ború, comes from Boramha, the name of the village where he was born. Ceann Coradh, now Kincora, was the stronghold of Brian, near the mouth of the Shannon river.
Dalcassian Septs included Ua Briain (O'Brien), Mac Domhnaill (MacDonnell), Ua Gradaigh (O'Grady), Ua hAnrachain (O'Hanrahan), Ua h-Elidhe (O'Healy), Ua Cinneide (O'Kennedy), Mac Con Mara (MacNamara), possibly Ua Cuinn (O'Quinn), Ua hEachtighearna (O'Aherne), and O'Muldoon (Malone) of Ogonelloe in east Co. Clare, among others.

About the 13th century the territories within in the modern county of Clare were given as Ó mBloid, Ó gCaisin, Tradaree, Cineal Fearmaic, Uí Cormaic, East Corcabaiscinn, West Corcabaiscinn, Corcomroe, Burren, and Uí Breacain. Six of the ancient territories are today represented on the Clare County Council's Coat of Arms, that is - Corcumrua, Ui Caisin, Clann Cuilean, Corca Baiscinn, Ui Breacain, and Dal gCais, that compromise the present day county. 

The early territories would eventually be formed into the medieval and more modern baronies of Tulla (formerly part Ó mBloid), Bunratty (formerly part Ó gCaisin & Tradaree), Inchiquin (formerly Cineal Fearmaic, and Tullyodea), the Islands (formerly part Uí Cormaic, and Clonroad), Clonderlaw (formerly part East Corcabaiscinn), Moyarta (formerly part West Corcabaiscinn), Ibrickan (formerly Uí Breacain), Corcomroe and Burren (formerly the tribal area of Corco Mruadh).

The Ó mBloid and Ó gCaisin are given as Dalcassian septs, descended from the sons of Cas, 7th in descent from Ailell Aulum (or Oilill Olum), and represented by the septs of O'Brien, MacNamara (Clann Chuiléin), and many others in the region. The O'Briens and MacNamaras were dominant lords in this region for many centuries.

The Cineal Fearmaic are given as either Úi Fidgeinti or Dalcassian in origin, depending on which genealogy followed, and were represented by the O'Deas, O'Quins, O'Heffernans, et al. Origins of the Uí Cormaic are given as Úi Fidgeinti with their representatives the O'Hehirs, et al. The Corca Baiscinn are given in descent from a son of Conaire Mor ( c. A.D. 165), and related to the Corco Duibne of Munster and the Dal Riata of Ulster, with their later representatives cited as O'Donnell and MacMahon of Munster, among others.

The Uí Breacain are given as a Dalcassian sept in early genealogies, with their representatives including . The main septs of the Corco Mruadh, in descent from the Clanna Rory of Ulster, included O'Connor of Corcomroe, O'Loughlin of the Burren, O'Garbh, among others. The Tradaree (Tradraige) area included, among others, the O'Neills of Cinel Dealbhaoith. O'Donovan's Tribes of Ui Fiachrach cites the tribes of the Tradraighe as remnants of the original Firbolg tribes of Connacht.

an early genealogy of the Dál gCais - lineage of Brian Borumha, King of Ireland:   (Rawlinson B502)
Muirchertach m. Tairdelbaich m. Taidgcc m. Briain (ríg h-Érenn) m. Ceinnétich m. Lorccáin m. Lachtnai m. Cuircc m. Anluain m. Mathgamna m. Tairdelbaich m. Caidléine m. Áeda m. Conaill m. Echach Balldeirg m. Cáirthind m. Blait (a quo Úi Blait) m. Tháil qui fuit Cass m. Conaill Echluaith m. Luigdech Mind m. Óengusa Tírich m. Fir Choirb m. Moga Coirb m. Cormaic Caiss m. Ailella Auluimb m. Éogain Toídlich (aka Moga Nuadat) m. Moga Néit

The annals cite for the Dál gCais:

  • CS925, The birth of Brian son of Cendétigh.
  • CS951, Cendétigh son of Lorcán, king of Dál Cais, dies.
  • CS976, Mathgamain son of Cendétigh, king of Mumu, was killed by Maelmuad son of Bran, the king of Uí Echach, after he had been handed over by Dondubán son of Cathal, king of Uí Fidgente, in treachery.
  • CS982, Dál Cais was plundered by Mael Sechnaill son of Domnall, and the tree of Magh Adair was cut down.
  • CS977, Inis Cathaigh was violated by Brian son of Cendétigh against the foreigners of Luimnech, i.e. Imar and his two sons, i.e. Amlaíb and Dubcenn.
  • AI978, The battle of Belach Lechta, in which Mael Muad son of Bran, king of Caisel, and many others fell. Brian, son of Cennétig, was victor.
  • AI983, A large fleet [was brought] by Brian, son of Cennétig, into the territory of Connachta, and portion of his force was slain there, i.e. Mael Sechnaill, son of Coscrach, and Finn, son of Dubchrón, and Lochlainn son of Mael Sechnaill, royal heir of Corcu Modruad. His officials went by land into Uí Briúin, and great slaughter was mutually inflicted upon them and upon the Uí Brúin. The capture of Gilla Pátraic, son of Donnchadh, king of Osraige, and the harrying of Osraige by Brian, son of Cennétig, and the taking of its hostages. He took the hostages of Laigin first in the middle of Mag Ailbe.
  • AI985, The Déisi raided Brian's mercenaries and took three hundred cows. And Brian harried the Déisi to avenge that, and chased Domnall, son of Faelán, as far as Port Láirge, and the whole of the Déisi was devastated.
  • AI987, A hosting by Brian, son of Cennétig, across Desmumu,and he took the hostages of Les Mór, Corcach and Imlech Ibuir as a guarantee of the banishment of robbers and lawless people therefrom.
  • AI988, A fleet, viz. 300 boats, [was put] on Loch Rí by Brian, and they harried Mide and went to Uisnech. And twenty five boats of these went into Connachta, and a great slaughter of their crews was inflicted there, including Dúnlang, king of Raithlenn, Niall Ua hEirc, Dúngalach Ua Loingsig, and many others. And by them was slain Muirgius son of Conchobar, royal heir of Connachta.
  • M989, The battle of Carn-Fordromas was gained by Maelseachlainn over the people of Thomond, wherein fell Domhnall, son of Lorcan, lord of Muscraighe-thire and Ui-Forggo, and six hundred men along with him.
  • AI991, A hosting by Brian son of Cennétig into Laigin, on which fell Tadc, son of Donnchadh, and Cerrán Cnámchaille was killed to avenge him.
  • AI993, A naval raid by Brian, and he reached Breifne from Loch Rí by way of Áth Liac northwards.
  • AI996, The hostages of Uí Cheinnselaig and of the west of Liphe were taken by Brian, son of Cennétig, in Mag Ailbe.
  • AI997, Brian, son of Cennétig, with the princes of Mumu, and Mael Sechnaill son of Domnall, king of Temuir, went to Port dá Chaineóc, and they divided Ireland between them into two, viz. Leth Cuinn to Mael Sechnaill and Leth Moga to Brian; and the hostages of the Laigin and of the foreigners which Mael Sechnaill had, were given to Brian. AI998, Brian, son of Cennétig, [went] to Áth Luain, took the hostages of Connachta in one week, and handed them over to Mael Sechnaill.
  • CS999, A great army was led by Mael Sechnaill son of Domnall, and by Brian son of Cendétigh to Glenn Máma and the foreigners of Áth Cliath (Dublin) came to attack them, and the foreigners were defeated and slaughter inflicted on them, including Aralt son of Amlaíb and Culén son of Etigén and the nobles of Áth Cliath, and Mael Sechnaill and Brian went thereafter to Áth Cliath and were a week there and carried off its gold and silver and captives, and expelled the king i.e. Sitric son of Amlaíb.
  • CS1000, The foreigners were again in Áth Cliath, and their hostages given to Brian.
  • CS1001, The first turning of Brian and the Connachta against Mael Sechnaill. An army was led by Brian son of Cendétigh with the armies of south Connacht and the Osraige and the Laigin and the foreigners of Áth Cliath to come to Temair, but the foreigners went on a cavalry raid ahead in Mag Breg and Mael Sechnaill came up with them and inflicted slaughter on them. Brian then went to Ferta Nime in Mag Bregh without giving battle or carrying out an attack.
  • CS1001, Brian begins to rule.
  • AI1002, A muster of the men of Mumu, the Connachta, the men of Mide, the Laigin, and of the foreigners of Áth Cliath and Port Láirge by Brian, son of Cennétig, against the Ulaid to take their hostages.
  • AI1003, Brian, son of Cennétig, deposed the king of Laigin, i.e. Donnchadh, son of Domnall, and the hostages of Laigin were given by Brian to Mael Mórda, son of Murchad.
  • CS1005, An army was led by Brian with the men of Ireland to Cenél Eogain and to Ulaid to seek hostages, through Mide, so that they were one night in Tailtiu, thence to Ard Macha, and they were a week there and Brian left twenty unga of gold on the altar of Ard Macha. They went thence to Dál Araide and brought away the aitire of Dál Araide and the aitire of the Ulaid.
  • AI1006, Brian, together with the men of Mumu, the Laigin, the men of Mide, Mael Sechnaill, the Connachta, the foreigners of Áth Cliath, and the men of the whole of Ireland south of Sliab Fuait [came] to Áth Luain, went to Es Ruaid, proceeded across it northwards, and made a circuit of the north of Ireland including Cenél Conaill, Cenél Eógain, Ulaid, and Airgialla.
  • AI1007, A great muster of the men of Ireland, both foreigners and Gaedil, by Brian to Ard Macha, and they took the hostages of Ulaid from the king of Ailech by force.
  • CS1010, An army was led by Brian to the Claenloch of Sliab Fuair, and he took the aitire of Cenél Eógain and the Ulaid.
  • AI1010, A great hosting of the men of Mumu by Brian against Ua Néill, and it came to Ard Macha. And Ua Néill gave to Brian his demand in full, and Brian brought Ua Néill's hostages to Cenn Corad.
  • CS1011, An army was led by Brian to Mag Corainn and he brought away the king of Cenél Conaill i.e. Mael Ruanaidh ua Maíl Doraidh subject to him to Cenn Coradh.
  • CS1013, A great raid was made by Murchad son of Brian into Laigin and he plundered the country to Glenn dá Locha and Cell Maignenn, and burned and spoiled the country.
  • CS1014, An army was led by Brian son of Cendétigh son of Lorcán king of Ireland, and by Mael Sechnaill, king of Temair, to Áth Cliath. The foreigners of the world, such of them as were to the west of Lochlainn, gathered against Brian and Mael Sechnaill; they had a thousand men in breastplates. A fierce and bitter battle is fought between them to which no parallel has been found in these times, and there fell therein Brian son of Cendétigh, overking of Ireland and the foreigners and the Britons, in the eighty-eighth year of his age, and Murchad son of Brian, heir designate of Ireland, in the sixty-third year of his age, and Tairdelbach son of Murchad son of Brian and Conaing son of Donncuan, son of Brian's brother, and Mothla son of Domnall son of Faelán king of the Déisi of Mumu, and Eochu son of Dúnadach and Niall ua Cuinn and Cú Duiligh son of Cendétigh the three companions of Brian, and Tadc ua Cellaigh king of Uí Maine and Mael Ruanaidh ua Eidhin king of Aidhe and Gébennach son of Dubacán king of Fir Maighe and Mac Bethad son of Muiredach Claen king of Ciarraige Luachra and Domnall son of Diarmait king of Corco Baiscinn and Scanlán son of Cathal king of the Eoganacht of Loch Léin and Domnall son of Emin son of Cainnech and others. The battle was fought i.e. from the Tolcha to Áth Cliath, and the foreigners and the Laigin were put to flight by dint of battle and conflict and valour, and there fell there Mael Mórdha son of Murchad son of Finn king of Laigin, and Tuathal grandson of Ugaire heir designate of Laigin and the son of Brogarbán son of Conchobor heir designate of Uí Failge and many others, and there fell there Dubgall son of Amlaíb and Gilla Ciaráin son of Glún Iarainn, two heirs designate of the foreigners, and Sigrit son of Lodair earl of Innsi Orc and Bruadar chief of the Danes, and it was he killed Brian, and all the thousand men in breastplates and no less than three thousand of the foreigners fell there.
  • CS1014, An army was led by Donnchad son of Brian into the south of Ireland and he killed Cathal son of Domnall and obtained hostages from Domnall.
  • CS1014, A clash between two sons of Brian i.e. Donnchad and Tadc: Donnchad was defeated. Ruaidrí ua Donnacán, king of Arad, fell therein, and others.
  • CS1015, An army was led by Domnall son of Dub dá Bairenn to Luimnech. The two sons of Brian i.e. Donnchad and Tadc with the armies of Tuadmumu encountered him. A battle is fought between them. The south of Ireland was defeated and Domnall fell there.
  • CS1019, The son of Catharnach son of Aed of the Uí Caisín encountered Donnchad son of Brian and gave him a blow of his sword on the head and on his right hand and cut it off. Brian's son recovered afterwards, and Catharnach's son was killed.
  • CS1020, An army was led by Maelsechlainn and ua Néill and Donnchad son of Brian and Art ua Ruairc to the Sinna and they gave the hostages of Connacht to Mael Sechnaill.
  • CS1022, Mael Sechnaill son of Domnall, son of Donnchad, overking of Ireland, the flood of honour of the western world, died in Cró-inis of Loch Aininne in the forty-third year of his reign...
  • CS1023, Tadc son of Brian was killed treacherously by the Éile at the instigation of Donnchad son of Brian.
  • CS1026, An army was led by Brian's son and he took the hostages of Mide and Brega and the foreigners and the Laigin and Osraige.
  • CS1027, An army was led by the son of Brian into Osraige and some of his following was defeated there and there was killed there Gadra son of Dúnadach and Domnall son of Senchán son of Flaithbertach heir designate of Mumu and Mael Sechnaill ua Conchobuir king of Corco Mruaidh and the two sons of Cuilin son of Conchobor king and heir designate of Uí Conaill and the two sons of Écertach king and heir designate of northern Eoganachta and Ócán ua Cuirc son of Anluan son of Cendétigh and others.
  • CS1031, Ua Donnacán, king of Arad Tíre, was killed by Ua Briain.
  • CS1048, An army was led by Donnchad son of Brian through Mide and Brega to the foreigners and the Laigin, and he took hostages from the son of Mael na mbó and his due from the foreigners.
  • CS1050, The birth of Muirchertach ua Briain, [later] king of Ireland.
  • CS1051, Domnall Bán ua Briain was killed by ua Conchobuir, king of Connacht.
  • CS1054, A raid by Aed ua Conchobuir, king of Connacht, to Corcu Baiscinn and to Dartraige and he took great preys and on that occasion Aed son of Cendétigh, chief and honour of Dál Cais, was killed by him.
  • CS1058, The battle of Sliab Crot won by Diarmaid son of Mael na mbó and by Tairdelbach ua Briain over Donnchad ua Briain in which fell Ligda successor of Ailbe and Rígbardán son of Cú Coirne, king of Éle.
  • CS1059, The son of Brian went into the house of Aed ua Conchobuir, the king of Connacht, and gave him his obedience.
  • CS1064, Donnchad son of Brian was deposed and went to Rome on pilgrimage and died in repentance i.e. in the monastery of Stephen.
  • CS1066, The value of thirty uinge of gold was given by Tairdelbach ua Briain and the son of Mael na mbó to Aed ua Conchobuir for assisting them, and the same amount by Murchad ua Briain for assisting him.
  • CS1067, An army was led by Diarmait son of Mael na mbó with the foreigners and the Laigin and with Tairdelbach ua Briain with the men of all Mumu against Aed ua Conchobuir, and he slew ua Conchubuir, king of Ciarraige Luachra.
  • CS1068, Murchad ua Briain, heir designate of Ireland, the 'short shield', was killed by the men of Tebtha.
  • CS1075, Muirchertach ua Briain was made king in Áth Cliath (Dublin).
  • CS1080, An army was led by Tairdelbach ua Briain to Áth Cliath and to the men of Mide, and Mael Sechnaill son of Conchobor came into his house with the successor of Pátraic and the staff of Jesus.
  • LC1084, A hosting by the men of Mumha into Midhe; and it was on that expedition Conchobhar Ua Cedfadha died. And the Conmaicne went into Tuadh-Mumha in their absence, when they burned forts and churches, and carried off great spoils.
  • CS1086, Tairdelbach ua Briain, king of most of Ireland, ended his life happily in the twenty-second year of his reign.
  • CS1088, A defeat inflicted by Ruaidrí ua Conchobuir on Muirchertach ua Briain at Inis Ardachaidh where many Munstermen were killed. Another slaughter of Munstermen by Ruaidrí ua Conchobuir. Corco Mruad was attacked by Ruaidrí ua Conchobuir and they hardly left a cow or man undestroyed.
  • M1091, The prey of the fire-brands made, on Great Christmas night, by Muircheartach Ua Briain, upon the Ui-Failghe and the grandsons of Bran Breac.A peace was made between Muircheartach Ua Briain and the sons of Tadhg Ua Briain; and the men of Thomond returned to their homes, but the sons of Tadhg acted treacherously towards them, and they were plundered by the Connaughtmen.
  • CS1093, All Síl Muiredaigh were defeated by Muirchertach ua Briain, king of Ireland, and he plundered them and drove them into Tír Eogain and captured their king i.e. Gilla na Naom ua Conchobuir and ua Concenainn, the son of Tadc, king of Uí Diarmata.
  • M1094, A battle was gained by Tadhg, son of Ruaidhri Ua Conchobhair, and the Sil-Muireadhaigh, over the people of Thomond and West Connaught, in which three hundred were slain; and they plundered all West Connaught. This was called the battle of Fidhnacha. Of the chieftains who were slain in this battle were Amhlaeibh Ua hAichir, Donnsleibhe Ua Cinnfhaelaidh, and the son of Gillafursa Ua Maelmhuaidh.
  • CS1101, An army of the men of Ireland was led by Muirchertach ua Briain around Ireland i.e. by Eas Ruad and into Cenél Conaill and Inis Eoghain, and he destroyed Ailech, and over the narrows of the Camus into Ulaid and over Sliab Fuait home.
  • CS1103, The battle of Mag Coba. An army was led by Muirchertach ua Briain with all Leth Moga and Connachta and the men of Mide, and they came to Ard Macha and were a fortnight encamped there; they went thence to Mag Coba and divided there and Muirchertach ua Briain and Donnchad ua Mael Sechlainn king of Mide and Domnall son of Ruaidrí king of Connacht went raiding in Dál Araide and the Dál Araide killed Donnchad son of Tairdelbach ua Briain...
  • CS1114, A great sickness seized Muirchertach ua Briain and the men of Ireland turned against him. Diarmait ua Briain then took the kingship of Mumu. A great army was brought by all Leth Cuinn into Mumu... Tairdelbach ua Conchobuir gave an armistice for the space of a year to the men of Mumu despite the wishes of Leth Cuinn.
  • CS1115, Diarmait ua Briain king of Mumu was captured by Muirchertach ua Briain and the foreigners of Luimnech, and kingship was restored to Muirchertach.
  • LC1115, A great predatory excursion by Toirdhealbhach O Conchobhair and the Connachtmen, and they plundered Tuadh-Mumhan as far as Luimnech, ...
  • CS1116, The destruction of Bóruma and the burning of Cenn Coradh and the plundering of Tuadmumu by Tairdelbach son of Ruaidrí ua Conchobuir.
  • CS1117, A marauding army was brought by the Connachta into Mumu and they reached Sliab Crot and Claire and Sliab Cua. The army of Tuadmumu followed the Connachta into Mumu, and a battle is fought between them. The men of Mumu were defeated and slaughter inflicted on them, including ua Cendétigh and many others.
  • CS1118, Diarmait ua Briaín, king of Leth Mogha, dies.
  • CS1119, Muirchertach ua Briain, king of most of Ireland, for the ended his life happily as a cleric.
  • CS1121, A plundering army was led by Tairdelbach ua Conchobuir into Mumu and they caused great terror to Caisel and plundered Ard Finain. The rear of the army was attacked as it was moving south and there was killed there Aed ua Eidhin, king of Uí Fhiachrach, and Muiredach ua Flaithbertaigh, king of West Connacht, and Muirgius ua Lorcáin and others. A great encampment by Tairdelbach ua Conchobuir and Leth Cuinn at Birra from Samain to the feast of Brigit, and they divided Desmumu between the descendants of Carthach and the descendants of Briain.
  • LC1135, A great number of the men of Des-Mumha fell by those of Tuadh-Mumha, ...
  • M1137, Conchobhar Ua Briain, lord of Thomond and Ormond, went into the house of Diarmaid Mac Murchadha, King of Leinster, and left hostages there for defending Desmond for him.
  • CS1142, Conchobor son of Diarmait ua Briain, king of Mumu, rested in repentance in Cell Dalua.
  • M1157, Muircheartach, son of Niall Ua Lochlainn, went from thence to the Dal-gCais, and expelled them from Thomond, and plundered some of them in Thomond. He afterwards laid siege to Luimneach, until the foreigners submitted to him as their king, and banished Toirdhealbhach Ua Briain from among them. He afterwards divided Munster between the son of Mac Carthaigh, i.e. Diarmaid, son of Cormac, and Conchobhar, son of Domhnall Ua Briain.

Síl Cennétich - referred to here in conjunction with Ó Cinnéide (O'Kennedy) of Ormond, originally centered in the Glenomra valley near Killaloe, their lands at one time included much of the baronies of Upper and Lower Ormond in co. Tipperary, formerly part of the more ancient territory of Muscraige Tíre. Even after the arrival of the powerful Butler (Earls of Ormond) in the 13th century, the Kennedys remained an influential family as Gaelic 'lords of Ormond' from the eleventh to the sixteenth centuries, as recorded in The Annals of The Four Masters.
They are given as a Dalcassian sept, perhaps taking their name from Cinneide, son of Donnchuan, and a nephew of Brian Boru. O'Hart gives other familes descended from Donchuan as: Eustace, O'Regan (of Thomond), O'Kelleher, O'Beollan (or "Boland"), O'Casey, Power, and Twomey.

The Annals cite:

  • M948, An army was led by Conghalach into Munster; and he plundered West Munster, and slew the two sons of Ceinneidigh, son of Lorcan, namely, Echthighern and Donnchuan.
  • CS950, A raid by Congalach son of Mael Mithig into Mumu and he plundered west Mumu and killed two sons of Cendétigh, i.e. Echtigern and Donnacán.
  • M1054, Aedh, son of Ceinneidigh, son of Donnchuan, the love and glory of Dal-gCais, died.
  • AI1123, Donn Cuan Ua Cennétig rested.
  • M1159, Gillacaeimhghin Ua Ceinneidigh, lord of Ormond, died on his pilgrimage at Cill-Dalua.
  • M1164, Amhlaeibh, son of Gillacaeimhghin Ua Ceinneidigh, lord of Ormond, was blinded by Toirdhealbhach Ua Briain.
  • M1180, Donnell, the son of Teige O'Kennedy, Lord of Ormond, died.
  • U1181, Domnall Ua Ceinneidig, king of Ormond, was slain.
  • C1371, Brian O Cennetig, king of Ormond, was killed by the Galls.
  • M1381, Philip, the son of Philip O'Kennedy, Lord of Ormond, and Aine, daughter of Mac Namara, his wife, both died.
  • M1396, O'Kennedy, Lord of Ormond, died.
  • C1398, Pilip son of Mathgamain Donn O Cennetig died.
  • C1404, Tomas O Cennetig, half-king of Ormond, was killed by Domnall son of Pilip O Cennetig.
  • C1404, Donnahad son of O Cennetig Donn died this year while held in captivity by his own brothers.
  • C1407, The son of Tadc son of Mathgamain Donn O Cennetig, lord of Upper Ormond, was killed by O Cerbaill.
  • M1423, O'Kennedy Finn, Lord of Ormond, died.
  • M1427, The son of Donnell, son of Mahon Don O'Kennedy, Lord of Upper Ormond, was slain, with one cast of a dart, by Walter Tobin.
  • M1441, O'Kennedy Roe, i.e. Rory, the son of Philip, Half-Lord of Ormond, died.
  • C1474, The son of O Cennetig's son, lord of Upper Ormond, died.

Corco Mruad

The Corco Mruad were of west County Clare, later restricted to the Diocese of Kilfenora, barony of Burren. Caherballykinvarga, in the Burren of Co. Clare, was a ring-fort and a central settlement of the Corcu Mruad chiefdom. Septs included Ua Chonchobuir Chorcu Mruad (O'Conor Corcomroe), Ua Lochlainn (O'Loughlin), Ua Flaithbertach (O'Flaherty), Ua Diocholla (O'Deely), Ua Drinan (O'Drennan), O'Maoleidigh (O'Melody).

early Corco Mruad genealogy:   (Rawlinson)
Conchobor & Lochlaind dá m. Máel Sechnaill m. Argddai m. Sairennáin m. Flaithbertaich m. Duib Ruip m. Rechtabrat m. Láeg m. Duib Dá Chrích m. Báethellaich m. Máelduib m. Cuilíuin m. Senaich m. Amargein m. Táil m. Bruicci m. Conbruic m. Cúscraid m. Messen Nued m. Messen Sulad m. Meic Eirce m. Oscair m. Ochon m. Nechtain m. Art Chuirp m. Áeda Gnóe Fir Gaí Lethain m. Aislithi m. Me Druad m. Ollomna m. Déodai m. Echdach m. Cuircc m. Fergusa m. Rossa m. Rudraigi (founder of Clanna Rory in Ulster).

an alternate Corco Mruad genealogy:   (O'Hart Pedigrees)
Conor and Lochlan m. Maolsechlainn m. Argha m. Samhradhan m. Flahartach m. Dubhrue m. Rachtaura m. Miodh Laoch m. Dubh da crioch m. Maoldubh m. Ceallach m. Bescall m. Dubh m. Fulen m. Senach m. Amerigin m. Talagh m. Broch m. Cubrac m. Osgar m. Mesuindun m. Mesinsala m. Earck m. Enare m. Cork m. Oscar m. Merchu m. Earck m. Cuon m. Nachten m. Aodh chorb m. Aodh m. Anbheith m. Aibhill m. Meadnrua m. Ollaous m. Deadha m. Corc m. Fergus m. Rossa Ruadh (Roich, is mother) m. Ruadri Mor (founder of Clanna Rory in Ulster).
The Annals cite:

  • For 703/05, The battle of Corcmodhruadh, in which Celechar, son of Comman, was slain.
  • For 737, Flann Feorna, Lord of Corc Modhruadh, died.
  • For 763, A battle between the h-Úu Fidgennte & Corco Mruadh & Corco Baiscind.
  • For 871, Flaithbheartach, son of Duibhroip [Duibh Roip], lord of Corca Modhruadh Ninais, died.
  • For 899, Bruaideadh, son of Flaithbheartach, lord of Corcamdruadh, died.
  • For 902, Flann, son of Flaithbheartach, lord of Corca Modhruadh, died.
  • For 916/19, Cet, son of Flaithbertach, king of Corcu Mruad, died.
  • For 925, Anrothán, mac Maoil Guirm, tighearnusa Corco Mo Dhruadh.
  • For 926, Cet, mac Flaithbheartaigh, tighearna Corca Mo Dhruadh, died.
  • For 934, Anrudhan, mac Maoil Guirm, tighearna Corco Mo Dhruadh, died.
  • For 983, Lochlaint, tigherna Corca Mo Druadh, died.
  • For 1002/03, Conchobor, son of Mael Sechnaill, king of Corcu Modruad, was killed.
  • For 1027, Maol Sechloinn, mac Concobhair, tigherna Corco Mo Dhruadh.
  • For 1045, Congalach ua Lochlainn, king of Corcu Mruad, died.
  • For 1060, Anadh (Andadh) h-Úa Lochlaind, rí Corco Mruad, died.
  • For 1094, The battle of Fidnach in which half of the west of Connacht fell and half of Corco Mruad, by Tadc, son of Ruaidri ua Conchobuir.
  • For 1113, Mael Sechnainn ua Conchobuir, king of Corco Mruad [Corc' Mo Dhruadh], died.
  • For 1132, Lochlann, son of Amlaib Uí Lochlainn, king of Corco Mruad, was killed.
  • For 1135, Aodh Ua Conchobhair, tigherna Corca Mo Dhruadh.
  • For 1149, Ua Lochlainn, tigherna Corco Mo Dhruadh.
  • For 1168, Conchobhar Leth-dhearg, mac Maoil Seachlainn Uí Choncobhair, tighearna Corco Mo Dhruadh, was slain.
  • For 1361, Donough O'Loughlin, Lord of Corcomroe (Corco Mruad), died.
  • For 1389, Maeilsechlainn Cam O Lochlaind, king of Chorco Mruad.
  • For 1405, Dondchad Cam ua Lochlainn, ri Corcu Mruad.

Corco Baiscinn

Corco Baiscinn was centered in south-west (e.g. barony of Moyarta) of Co. Clare. Their origins are given to be the same as the Muscraige and the Dal Riata. Septs included Ua Bascinn (O'Baskin), Mac Diarmata (MacDermot), Ua Domhnaill (O'Donnell, or MacDonnell), MacMahon.

The annals cite:

  • M165, Conaire, son of Mogh Lamha, after having been eight years in the sovereignty of Ireland, fell by Neimhidh,... This Conaire had three sons, Cairbre Musc, from whom the Muscraighe are called; Cairbre Baschaein, from whom are the Baiscnigh, in Corca Baiscinn; and Cairbre Riadal, from whom are the Dal Riada.
  • For 717/21, A battle was fought between the Connaughtmen and the Corca Baiscinn, wherein the son of Talamhnaigh was slain.
  • for 763, A battle was fought between the h-Úu Fidgennte & Corco Mruadh & Corco Baiscind.
  • For 799, Tarla gaeth anbfoill, tóirneach, & teindteach isin ló ria féil Pádraicc na bliadhna-so, go ro marbhadh deichnebhar ar mhíle h-i crích Corca Baiscind, & co ro rand an mhuir Oilen Fithae i tribh randaibh.
  • For 807/12, Aedh Roen (Róin), lord of Corco Baiscinn, died.
  • For 862, Cermad, mac Catharnaigh, toiseach Corca Bhaiscind, was slain by the foreigners.
  • For 913, Lenae, mac Catharnaigh, tighearna Corca Bhaisgind, died.
  • for 918, Murchadh, mac Flaind, tighearna Corca Bhaiscind, died.
  • For 992, Dunadhach, mac Diarmada, tigherna Corco Bhaiscind, died.
  • For 1014, Domnall m. Diarmada, ri Corco Baiscind.
  • For 1049, Aneislis (Anaessles) mac Domnaill, rí Corco Baiscind, do marbad do mac Aisith maic Domnaill, mac a derbrathar.
  • For 1054, A hosting was made by Aedh h-Úa Concobair la ríg Connacht, on Corco Baiscind & on Tradraighe.
  • AI1055, Murchad Ua Briain was attacked in Corcu Modruad, and Tairdelbach inflicted a great slaughter upon him. Two kings of Corcu Baiscinn, namely, the grandson of Bascenn and the son of Assíd son of Domnall, with other nobles, were slain therein.
  • For 1143, h-Úa n-Domnaill ríg Corco Baiscind.
  • For 1158, Ua Domhnaill, tigherna Corca Bhaiscind, was slain by h-Ua c-Concobhair Corca Mo Dhruadh (O'Conor Corcomroe).


Branching out of the race of Cian, son of Oilill Olum, the Clan Cian is found anciently in the territory of h-Éile Muman, among other places. A main branch descends from Cearbhal, lord of Ely, who was descended from Oilioll Olum. Various septs are noted of Éile (Ely).
Eile / Clan Cian - northeast Tipperary, southwestern Offaly - e.g. O'Carroll.
Eile Uí Fhogartaigh [barony of Eliogarty] - South Eile - e.g. O'Fogarty, cited as a Dal gCais sept.
Uí Fiachach Eile - in descent from Deachluath, son of Fiacha Muilleathan (Eoganacht).
Ui Flannacan Eli, alias Cenél Farga (Cinel Fearga or Cenél Arga), occupied the barony of Ballybrit, King's county.
Úi Luigdech Éile, descended from Lugaid, son of Ailill Flann Bec (Eoganacht).
Corca Eathrach Eli, aka Corco Athrach, alias Machaire Caisil, centered near Cashel and Holy Cross, descended from Aimirgin Glúngel.
Mec Con Medha of Tir Ele, MacConway, of Sil Ronain, of southern Ui Neill descent.

Septs included Ua Cearbhaill (O'Carroll), Ua Fhogartaigh (O'Fogarty), Ua Meachair (O'Meagher), Mag Corcrain (Mac Corcoran), Ua Flannacain (O'Flanagan), Ua Banain (O'Banan), Ua Cathail (O'Cahill), Mac Guilfoyle.

In O'Heerin's Topographical Poem it describes 8 tuatha under the King of Ely (the O'Carrolls of the Plain of Birra). The eight included Kinel Arga alias Cenél Farga (Ui Flannacan); Clan Rooney (Mag Corcran); Crioch Chein (O'Hegan); Clan Maonaigh (O'Dooley, formerly chief of Fartullagh); Clan Conligan (Mac Guilfoyle); Hy Deki (O'Banan); Crioch Keerin, or Ui Cairin and now anglicised Ikerrin (O'Meagher); and Tuath Faralt ( O'Hailchen). O'Heerin next describes Corca Tine and Ely the southern, who were possibly centered in the present Barony of Elyogarty in the County of Tipperary.

O'Donovan in his Ordnance Survey letters notes "From the poem of O'Heerin's it appears that before the Irish principalities were disturbed or dismembered by the Anglo Normans in the 12th century, Ely, the Kingdom of O'Carroll extended from Birr to Ely O'Fogarty in the County of Tipperary and that it comprised the present Baronies of Ballybritt, Clonlisk and Ikerrin." He goes on to cite the extent of Ely O'Carroll defined on the north by the boundary of ancient Meath (by the boundary of the Diocese of Meath); on the east by the ridge of the Slieve Bloom range of mountains (i.e. by Eile Ui Mhordha, aka Ely O'Morha); on the south by Eile Uí Fhógartaigh, aka Ely O'Fogarty (largely the barony of Eliogarty); and on the west perhaps by the baronies of Ormond (formerly part of Muscraighe Tíre).

An early Éile genealogy:   (Rawlinson)
Rígbarddán m. Con Coirne m. Móenaich m. Cerbeill cuius filius Gilla Pátric m. Dúnlainge m. Cnáimíne m. Máel Ruanaid m. Sechnassaich m. Ultáin m. Lonáin m. Binnig m. Féicc m. Tháil m. Menchair m. Arad m. Druad m. Éli Rigdeirg m. Findchada Ulaig m. Eircc m. Sabarnaich m. Findcháin m. Féicc m. Findchada Ulaich m. Condlai m. Taidcg m. Céin m. Ailella Auluimb.

An early Éle genealogy:   (Rawlinson)
Bróen m. Gillai Chuileáin m. Cléirich m. Ceinnétich m. Áilgenáin m. Máel Ruanaid m. Sechnassaich m. Aingeda m. Máel Ruanaid m. Sechnassaich m. Ultáin m. Lonáin m. Binnig m. Féicc m. Tháil m. Menchair m. Arad m. Druad m. Éli Rigdeirg m. Findchada Ulaig m. Eircc m. Sabarnaich m. Findcháin.
Genealogy note: Corcco Áelda dano do Síl Condla m. Taidc dóib. Corcco Tene do Síl Briain m. Echdach dóib. Dá ardaiccme dano Corcco Tene: Clann Máelhuidir & Cenél n-Eircc. Trí h-ardaiccme immorru Corcco Áelda .i. Úi Dínertaich & Úi Midgusa & Úi Amraid.

An early Éile genealogy:   (Keating) Maolruanuidh, son of Fionn, son of Domhnall, son of Rioghbhradan, son of Cu Coirneach, son of Maonach, son of Cearbhall, son of Aodh, son of Dubhluidhe, son of Cnaimhin, son of Seachnusach, son of Aineadh, son of Maolruanuidh, son of Eile Righdearg (from whom Eile is named) son of Tomchadh, son of Ulltan, son of Lonan, son of Binne, son of Feagh, son of Tal, son of Meachar, son of Ard, son of Drui, son of Earc, son of Fionnchadh Uallach (brother to this Fionnchadh was Fionnachta from whom sprang O Meachair), son of Connla, son of Tadhg, son of Cian, son of Oilill Olom.

An early Éile Clan Cian genealogy
O Cearbhaill, in descent from Iomchaidh, son of Connla Clamh, son of Tadhg, son of Cian, son of Oilill Olom.
O Meachair, in descent from Fionnachta, son of Connla Clamh, son of Tadhg, son of Cian, son of Oilill Olom.
Excerpts from the Annals:

  • For 571, The battle of Tola, by Fiachna, son of Baedan, son of Cairell, against the people of Osraighe and Eile; and they were defeated. Tola is the name of a plain situated between Cluain Fearta Molua and Saighir.
  • AI669, Death of Forchellach, king of Éile.
  • For 707, The battle of Dola, in Magh Ele, where Leathlobhar, son of Eochaidh, Cu Allaidh, and Cu Dinaisc, were slain.
  • AI744, Death of Ardgal, king of Éile.
  • M757/T762, Fogartach, son of Eochaidh, lord of Eile died.
  • M847, Tuathal, son of Ceallach, lord of Eile, died.
  • For 874 Donnchadh, son of Maelseachlainn, was mortally wounded by the Eili.
  • For 888, A battle was gained over the Eili by Maelguala and the men of Munster, at Caiseal, in which many noble youths were slain.
  • For 900, A battle was gained by Ceallach, son of Cearbhall, and by the Osraighi, over the Eili and the Muscraighi, in which fell one hundred and ten persons, among whom was Techtegan, son of Uamnachan, lord of Eili, and many others of distinction.
  • M903, Cnáimheini, mac Maenaigh, tighearna Ele, d'ég.
  • M975, Seachnasach mac h-Iruaidh tigherna Eile do mharbhadh.
  • AI1022, Death of Gilla Pátraic son of Cerball, king of Éile.
  • M1022, The son of Cearbhall, lord of Eile, was slain.
  • For 1023, Tadhg, mac Briain, mic Cindeittigh, do mharbhadh do Eilibh i fiull, iar na eráil dia bhrathair féin do Dhonnchadh, forrae.
  • AI1028, Death of Ua Dubchróin, king of Éile.
  • LC1033, Aimhergin Ua Cerbhaill, king of Eile, died.
  • M1033, Aimhirgin Ua Cearbhaill, lord of Eile, died.
  • LC1033, A victory was gained by the Eile, in which Braen Ua Clerigh, and Muiredhach, son of Mac Gillapatraic, et alii multi, were slain.
  • U1033, A rout was inflicted among the Éile in which Braen ua Cléirig and Muiredach grandson of Gilla Pátraic and many others fell.
  • AI1033, Braen Ua Cléirig, king of Éile, was killed.
  • M1050, Maelruanaidh, son of Cucoirne, lord of Eile, was killed by his own people.
  • LC1050, Maelruanaidh, grandson of Cucoirne, king of Eile, died.
  • T1050, Mael Ruanaid mac Conchobuir, ri Éile, do marbadh dia muntir fén a mebail.
  • U1050, Mael Ruanaid son of Cú Choirne, king of Éile, was killed.
  • M1058, Ríoghbhardán, mac Con Cóirne, tigherna Ele, fell.
  • LC1058, Ribhardan, son of Cucoirne, king of Eile, fell.
  • M1071, The son of Righbhardan, son of Cucoirne, lord of Eile, was slain in a battle
  • M1072, Ua Fogarta, lord of Eile, was killed by Ua Briain.
  • AI1071, Rígbardán's son, king of Éile, was slain.
  • M1121, Ríghbhardán, mac Con Choirne, tighearna Ele do écc.
  • M1145, Finn Ua Cearbhaill, Tanist of Eile, was killed.
  • M1152, Domhnall, son of Righbhardan, lord of Eile, was slain by the son of the Long-legged (An Chos Fhada) Ua Cearbhaill.
  • T1152, Domnall mac Rigbardan h-Úi Cerbaill, rí Eile, do marbad do mac in Cosfhada, h-Úi Cerbaill.
  • M1163, The son of Finn Ua Cearbhaill, lord of North Eile, was slain by Domhnall, son of Toirdhealbhach.
  • AI1163, The son of Finn Ua Cerbaill, {i.e. of Éile}, was slain.
  • M1174, Ruaidri h-Úa Cerbaill [Rory O'Carroll], Lord of Ely, was slain in the middle of the island of Inish-cloghran.
  • T1174, Ruaidri h-Úa Cerbaill, rí Eile, do marbad dia brathair fén ar lar Indsi Clothrand.
  • AI1174, A hosting by the grey foreigners, and they came into Éile. Domnall Ua Briain and the Tuadmumu assembled [against them] at Durlas Ua Fócarta, and a battle was fought between them, in which the grey foreigners were defeated, seven hundred or somewhat more being slain.
  • M1205, The son of Guill-bhealach O'Carroll, Lord of Ely, was slain by the English.
  • C1318, A great victory was gained over the English in Ely, by O'Carroll; and Adam Mares and many other Englishmen were slain.
  • C1399, Tadc O Cerbaill, king of Ely, was captured by the Earl of Ormond this year.
  • M1432, A great war broke out between O'Carroll, Lord of Ely, and the Earl of Ormond; and the Earl marched at the head of a great army into Ely, ravaged the country, and demolished O'Carroll's two castles.
  • M1443, Maelruanaid O Cerbaill, king of Ely, died this year.
Éile Uí Fhógartaigh, aka Ely O'Fogarty or Desceirt Éle, was centered in the barony of Eliogarty in county Tipperary, apparently also including a portion of the baronies of Upper Ormond and Ikerrin. The Ely O'Fogarty region formed the southern portion of a more extended territory simply referred to as Éile (Ely). Thurles is located in the heart of Eliogarty, and O'Donovan (Four Masters) describes this place as Dúrlas Uí Fogarta. The barony of Eliogarty was the patrimony of the O'Fogartys, i.e. the Síl Echach Bailldeirg, as O'Donovan (Poems) refers to them as.

MacLysaght (Irish Familes) says of the O'Fogarty genealogy, "though located outside the area associated with the Dalcassian septs the O'Fogartys are counted as of Dalcassian origin."

A possible early Éle (Uí Fhógartaigh) genealogy:   (Rawlinson)
Fogartach m. Flaind m. Aurchlosaich m. Congaile ... m. Echach Balldeirg m. Cáirthind Find m. Blait m. Tháil qui fuit Cass m. Conaill Echluaith m. Luigdech Mind m. Óengusa Tírich m. Fir Choirb m. Moga Coirb m. Cormaic Caiss m. Ailella Auluimb.
The Annals cite:

  • T1050, Maol Ruanaidh, mac Con Cóirne, tigherna Ele, do mharbhadh dia mhuintir fén.
  • T1057, Mael Ruanaidh H. Fócarta ri Deisceirt Eile do tuitim la Donnchadh m. Briain.
  • LC1057, Maelruanaidh Ua Fogartaigh, king of the South of Eile, fell by Donnchadh, son of Brian.
  • CS1060, A raid was made by the Éile and ua Fogarta on Cluain moccu Nóis and two persons were killed at the church i.e. from the cross of the scriptorium. The cows returned by the power of Ciarán at the time of rising on the following day.
  • M1171, Domhnall Ua Fogarta, lord of South Eile, was slain by Domhnall, son of Donnchadh Mac Gillaphadraig of Osraighe; and he made a slaughter of the people of the two Eiles, where he slew three hundred persons.
  • LC1072, Ua Fogarta, king of Eile, was slain by Ua Briain.
  • LC1076, Gormlaith, daughter of Ua Fogartaigh, wife of Toirdhealbhach Ua Briain, died.
  • M1121, Conchobhar Ua Fogarta, lord of South Eile, was killed.

Aradh Tíre and Aradh Chliach

Ara, Arae, Arad, Arada or Aradh.

The Leabhar na gCeart cites the people of Ara (Arada, Aradh) were Rudricians, descended from Feartlachta, son of Fearghus, King of Ulster, in the 1st century; but these people were driven out by the descendants of Eoghan, son of Ailioll Óluim, and thereafter the territory was called Eoghanact Aine Cliach. O'Ciarmhaic, the chief, paid tribute to King Munster.
In early texts there is mention of the four Aradhs, descended from Feartlachtga, son of Feargus. The Book of Fenagh says they were Ui Monan, Ui Fidhmuine, Artroighi and Teochraide. The Book of Leinster makes them the Taechraige, Artraige, Descert Cliach and Hui Idban (Hui Fidbannaig). The Book of Lecan cites the Taecraidi, Artraidi, Deisceart Cliach, Uí Fidban and Uí Feitheamna.

Aradh Tíre was located in northern Tipperary, within the half barony of Ara (and Owney) or the northern half of the barony of Owney and Ara. Ua Donnacáin (O'Donegan) is cited as king of Arad or Aradh Thíre prior to the Norman arrival, with Uí Riada (O'Reidy) cited as king of Aradh in 1129. The Mac I Brien were also noted here in the 14th century. The territory of Araid Tíre was east and south-east of Lough Derg on the east side of the Shannon in County Tipperary.

Ara Chliach was centered east of the city of Limerick, perhaps in or near the baronies of Clanwilliam and Coonagh in northeastern county Limerick. The Eoganacht Araidh Cliach in the barony of Coonagh, the Eoghanacht Aine Cliach in the barony of Small County, and the Uaithne Cliach in the barony of Owneybeg, were all close neighbors. The Book of Ballymote mentions the Araidh Clíach descended from Eber, son of Ir, an ancient lineage tying them to the Rudricians, aka Clanna Rory of Ulster. The tribal group called the Dál Mo Dola migrated from Pallas Grean in Arada Cliach, to the area of Airthir Cliach (in Munster) according to theTripartite Life of St. Patrick. Airthir Cliach is thought to be in the territory of Muscraighe Mitine (Hogan). The Éoghanacht Leag in Arad Cliach and the Éoganacht Airthir Cliach share a common lineage according to the genealogies.

The Dál Coirpri Aradh were of Laiginian [Leinster] origin, descendants of Cu Chorb, who possibly settled in County Tipperary. The Book of Leinster places them in Ara Thire and Ara Cliach, located as cited above. The same source mentions the Dál Coirpri Aradh Cliach descended from Mál mac Arbhara, and the Dál Coirpri Aradh Tíre descended from Finnchaidh, son of Ferroith; both located in Munster.

Dál Coirpri Cliach - The Book of Lecan and Book of Ballymote mention the Dál Coirpri Cliach in descent from Lughaidh Corb. The Dál Coirpri in Ara Cliach were noted, by O'Donovan and Hennessy, in and near the barony of Idrone in Co. Carlow (in Leinster). The latter, and perhaps the former, were also referred to as Dál Coirpri Loingsic Beic, a chief family of early Leinster, by the Book of Leinster. The Dál Coirpri in Ara Cliach were also recognized in the Book of Ballymote as a chief family of Leinster. To confuse matters, the Book of Leinster also recognizes a Dál Coirpri Loingsic in Munster, named from Coirpri Musc the poet, who received the land of Tír nAmhais from Aongus Musc.

an early Dál Cairpri Arad Tíre genealogy:   (Rawlinson)
Connaid m. Máeli Doburchon m. Lóchéne m. Demle m. Lommáin m. Cuirc m. Findchada m. h-Írchada m. Fir Roith m. Fir Nuad m. Buain m. Airgetbrain m. Cairpri Cluichechair m. Con Corb unum genus est & Dál Cairpri Arad Tíre.

an early Dál Cairpri Arad genealogy:   (Rawlinson)
Flaithbertach m. Crunnmaíl m. Commáin m. Fínáin m. Fhaigir m. Eirníne m. Féicc m. Meic Ieir m. Gossa m. Fabrich m. Máil m. Ainmerech m. Fir Roith m. Muine m. Fir Neud m. Fir Lugdach m. Buain m. Argatibair m. Cairpre Cluichechair m. Con Corb.

The Annals cite for the general terms Aradh, Ariad, Ara...:

  • CS484, Criomthann, son of Enna Cennsealach, King of Laighen, mortally wounded by Eochaidh Guinech of the Ibh Bairrche, and by the men of Aradh Cliach. (Leinster?)
  • AI598, The battle of Ráith in Druad and the battle of Ard Sendaim. The Uí Fhinn were put to flight. The Araid [were] victors.
  • AI635, The battle of Cúil Óchtair between the UÍ Fhidgeinte and the Araid.
  • CS667, The battle of Áine between the Araid and the Uí Fhidgeinti, in which Eógan son of Crunnmael fell.
  • AI766, A defeat [was inflicted] by the Uí Fhidgeinte and by the Araid Cliach on Mael Dúin, son of Aed, in Brega, i.e. Énboth Breg.
  • For 770, Duibh Innrechtach, lord of Aradh, died.
  • For 856, A victory was gained by Cearbhall, lord of Osraighe, and by Imhar, in the territory of Aradh Tire, over the Cinel Fiachach, with the Gall Gaeidhil (the Dano Irish) of Leath Chuinn. Four hundred above six thousand was the number which came with Cearbhall and Imhar.
  • For 1013, Maidm ria Tadhg m. Briain for Donnchad m. Briain co fargbad Ruaidri H. Donnacan, ri Aradh.
  • LC1014, A victory by Tadhg, son of Brian, over Donnchadh, son of Brian, in which Ruaidhri, son of Donnagan, king of Aradh, was killed.
  • CS1014, A clash between two sons of Brian i.e. Donnchad and Tadc: Donnchad was defeated. Ruaidrí ua Donnacán, king of Arad, fell therein, and others.
  • M1014, Dunghal Ua Donnchaidh went on a predatory excursion into Aradh Cliach, and Finn, the son of Ruaidhri Ua Donnagain, and Ui-Cuanach, were slain by him.
  • M1015, A victory was gained by the Eili over Eoghanacht-Chaisil, where Domhnall, grandson of Domhnall, royal heir of Caiseal, and Domhnall, grandson of Ruaidhri, lord of Aradh, and numbers of others, were slain.
  • For 1031, Ua Donnacáin, tigherna Arad Thíre, was slain by Toirdhelbhach ua m-Briain.
  • AI1031, Ua Donnocáin, king of Ara, was slain by the son of Domnall, son of Brian.
  • AI1043, Echthigern Ua Donnocáin, king of Ara, was slain.
  • For 1094, Annadh h-Ua Céli, rí Aradh, was slain by the men of Munster at Áth Cliath.
  • AI1094, Ruaidrí Ua Donnocáin, king of Ara, rested in penitence.
  • For 1121/22, Mael Sechnaill ua Donnacáin, king of Arad Tíre, was treacherousy killed by Clann Coscraigh.
  • For 1129, The altar of the great church of Cluain-mic-Nois was robbed, and jewels were carried off from thence, namely, ... the drinking-horn of Ua Riada, King of Aradh.
  • For 1174, Mael Sechlainn Ua Donnacán, rí Aradh, was slain by d' Ú Conaing.


Clann Uathnia included Uaithni Thíre (perhaps the southern part of the barony of Owney and Arra in northwest Co. Tipperary) and Uaithni Cliach (barony of Owneybeg in northeast Co. Limerick). Uaithne Cliach (of Cliú) was also referred to as Uaithne Beg or Uaithne Fidbaig (Fidbuide or Fidhbhaidé).

The Four Tribes of Owney (Uaithne) were described as O'Heffernan, O'Calahane, O'Loinsigh (Lynch) and MacKeogh. The O'Cahalane or Culhane (Ua Cathalain) sept is noted as a lord of Owney Beg (Uaithne Cliach) in the early 12th century. Ua Duinechair (e.g. O'Dinan, Downing) is another sept noted as chiefs of Uaithne (Cliach) by O'Hart (Pedigrees). The O'Mulryans of Corfin, Co. Clare were noted as chiefs in Owney in the 14th century, displacing the O'Heffernans.

an early Uaithne Tíre genealogy:   (Rawlinson)
Loingsech m. Sestnáin m. Congeltaich m. Donnchada m. Echdach m. Moínaich m. Brócáin m. Beraich, descended from ... Celtchair m. cUuithechair m. Fothaid m. Fhir Fhiled m. Glaiss m. Rosa m. Rudraigi m. Sittride m. Duib m. Fomuir m. Argatmáir m. Sírláim m. Find m. Blátha m. Labrada m. Carpri m. Ollaman Fótla. m. m. Fiachach Findscoithe a athair m. Sétna Airtt m. Ébir m. h-Ír m. Míled.

The Annals cite:

  • U627, The battle of Carn Feradaig in Cliú, in which Failbe the Red of Feimen was victor. Guaire of Aidne took flight. Conall son of Maeldub took flight, and the king of Uí Maine fell.
  • AI708, The harrying of Cliú by Cormac, grandson of Maenach.
  • M914, Ainle, son of Cathan, lord of Uaithne-Cliach, was put to death by the foreigners of Loch Dachaech.
  • U916, Ainnle son of Cathán, king of Uaithne of Cliú, was put to death by the foreigners of Loch dá Chaech.
  • M949, Dubhdabharc, son of Maelmordha, lord of Uaithne-tire, died.
  • M1080, Eochaidh Ua Loingsigh, lord of Uaithne-thire, died.
  • CS1089, ua Conchobuir went on a raid into Mumu to Cell Dalua and Dál Cais in those ships, while ua Mael Sechnaill was in Uaithne Tíre and Uaithne Fidbaide, and they brought away many cows and captives.
  • M1107, Cuilen Ua Cathalan, lord of Uaithne-Cliach, died.
  • MCB1158, Amhlaoibh son of Aonghus Ó Donnchadha went on a foray to Uaithne, and Ó hIfearnáin, Ó Cathail, and many others were killed by him.
  • AI1313, Donnchad, son of Domnall Ó Briain, and his brother Brian, accompanied by many nobles from Tuadmumu, invaded Uaithne and slew many of the inhabitants.
  • M1585, Conor-na-Moinge of the Long Hair, son of William Caech, son of Dermot O'Mulryan, Lord of Uaithne-Ui-Mhaoilriain.

Uí Fidgeinti

Uí Fidgeinti, branching out of the Race of Fiachu Fidgenid, son of Maine Munchaín. The Uí Fidgente inhabited a region of County Limerick along the River Maigue, west of Limerick City, from the 3rd to the 12th century. About 950, Uí Fidgeinti split into two major groups, the Uí Cairpri (Cairbre) and the Ui Chonaill Gabhra. Chiefs of the former group, also called Uí Cairbre Eaodhe (Aodhbha), included the O'Donovan chiefs whose seat was at Bruree, County Limerick. Chiefs of Uí Chonaill Gabra included the Ui Cuiléin, or Collins, of the baronies of Connello, County Limerick.
The Saerthuatha Muman are described by the Book of Ballymote as Ui Conaill Gabra, Ui Cairbri, Ui Liathain, Ui Cormaic, Tradraighe, Ui Cathbaid, and Eli.

Septs of the Uí Fidgeinti included O'Donovan, O'Collins, O'Flannery, and Lyons, among others, of mid and west Limerick. e.g. baronies of Shanid, Lower Connello, Kenry and Pubblebrien.

an early Uí Fidgeinti genealogy:   (Rawlinson)
Máel Ruanaid m. Máel Suthain m. Echthigirn m. Billrin m. Dúbartaich m. Gussáin m. Dúnadaich m. Gillai Fursu m. Conaill m. Cind Fáelad m. Duib Dá Bairenn m. Áeda Róin m. Éoganáin m. Crunnmaíl m. Áedo m. Óengusa (.i. Lappae) m. Ailella Cennfota m. h-Eircc m. Cairpri m. Brioin m. Fiachach Fidgenid m. Maine Munchaín m. Ailella Flaind Bic m. Fiachach Fir Dá Liach m. Éogain Máir m. Ailella Auluimm m. Moga Nuadat m. Moga Néit.
The Annals cite:

  • For 645, Cuan, son of Conall, chief of Uí Fidhgeinte, was slain at the battle of Carn Conaill.
  • For 666, The battle of Aine, between the Aradha and Uí Fidhgeinte, where Eoghan, son of Crunnmael, was slain.
  • For 699, Conall, son of Doineannaigh, chief of Uí Fidhgeinte, died.
  • For 713/15, Aedh Dubh, chief of Uí Fidhgeinte, died.
  • For 745/50, Dubh Da Bhoirend, Lord of Uí Fidhgeinte, died.
  • For 755/60, Flann, son of Erc, lord of Uí Fidhgeinte, died.
  • For 763, A battle between the Úi Fidgennte & Corco Mruadh & Corco Baiscind.
  • For 767, Ceinnsalach, lord of Uí Fidhgeinte, died.
  • For 781, Scanlann, son of Flann, chief of Uí Fidhgeinte, died.
  • For 802/07, Murchadh Ua Flainn, lord of Uí Fidhgeinte, died.
  • For 809, Bruadar, lord of Uí Fidhgeinte, died.
  • For 833, A battle was gained over the Danes by Dunadhach, son of Scannlan, lord of Uí Fidhgeinte, wherein many were slain.
  • For 834, Dunadhach, son of Scannlan, lord of Uí Fidhgeinte, died.
  • For 843/45, Niall, son of Ceannfaeladh, lord of Uí Fidhgeinte, died.
  • For 852, Crunnmhael, son of Maelduin, lord of Uí Fidhgeinte, died.
  • For 858, Aedh Dubh, son of Dubh Dabhoireann, lord of Uí Fidhgeinte, died, after being wounded.
  • For 878, Finn, son of Dubhslaine, lord of Uí Fidhgeinte, died.
  • For 914, Gebhennach, mac Aodha tighearna Ua Fidhgeinte, was slain by the Norsemen.
  • For 974, Dhonnabhan mac Cathail, tigherna Ua Fidhgeinte.   (note: the ancestor of O'Donovan)
  • For 1013, Coirpre, mac Cleirceinn, tigherna Ua Fidhgheinti, was slain.
Uí Chairpri Éabha - by the 10th century an eastern portion of Uí Fidgeinti territory became the patrimony of the Uí Chairbre Éabha. The historian John O'Donovan describes the territory Uí Chairpri Aebhdha comprising the barony of Coshma and the districts around Brugh-righ (Bruree) and Kilmallock, and the plains on the west of the river Maigue as far as the Shannon. Uí Cairbre Aodha is also described in connection with Caonraoi, the barony of Kenry in co. Limerick (H. 1, 18, T.C.D., and O'Brien's Irish Dictionary). O'Hart (Pedigrees) mention O'Clerkin and O'Flannery as chiefs of Dal Cairbre Eva, in the barony of Kenry, county Limerick.
An early ruling sept of Uí Cairbre Eaodhe included Ua Donnubáin (O'Donovan). By the 13th century the O'Donovans were pushed by political pressure into the barony of Carbery into southwestern county Cork. MacLysaght (Irish Pedigrees) also notes the MacEnirys of the Ui Cairbre group, of the same stock as the O'Donovans. Pedigrees in the Book of Munster also gives septs of Uí Chairpri Eabha as O'Caolluighe (O'Kealy, Queally); O'Bruadair (Brouder, Broderick); and O'Cennfhaelaidh (Kenneally). It should be noted that a sept of Ua Cinnfhaelaidh (O'Kinneally) were noted in the Annals as kings of Ui-Conaill Gabhra.

Note: The Uí Cairpri Luachra, of Éoganacht Locha Lein affiliation, was also noted in the county Kerry, Cork, and Limerick region.

an early Ua Cairpri genealogy:   (Rawlinson)
Cenn Fáelad m. Duib Dá Bairenn m. Áeda Róin m. Éoganáin m. Crundmaíl m. Áeda m. Óengusa Lappae m. Ailella Cennfhota m. Eircc m. Cairpri m. Brioin m.Fiachach Fidgeinte.

an early O'Donnabhain genealogy:   (Book of Munster)
Murchadh, son of Amhlaoibh, son of Cathal, son of Donnabhain (a quo O Donnabhain), son of Cathal, son of Uainidhe, son of Cathal, son of Cionnfhaoladh, son of Dubhdaboireann, son of Aodh ruadh, son of Eoghan, son of Cronmhaol, son of Aodh, son of Aonghus, son of Laipe, son of Oilill, son of Cionnfhaola, son of Erc, son of Cairbre eabha (a quo Ui Chairbre Eabha), son of Brian, son of Fiachra Fighgheinte, son of Daire Cearba.
an early O'Cennfhaelaidh (Kenneally) genealogy:   (Book of Ui Maine)
Cennfhailadh (a quo Ui Cennfhaelaidh), son of Dubhdabhoireann, son of Aodh Roin, son of Cronnmhaol, son of Aodh, son of Aonghus, son of Laipe, son of Oilill, son of Cennfhaeladh, son of Erc, son of Cairbre eabha (a quo Ui Chairbre Eabha), son of Brian, son of Fiacha Fidhgheinte.

The Annals cite for the term Chairpri or Cairpri:

  • AI667, The battle of Áine, in which Eóganán son of Crunnmael, king of the Uí Chairpri, fell.
  • AI982, Uainide son of Donnubán, king of Uí Chairpri, died.
  • MCB1177, ... the Uí Chairbre, the Uí Chonaill, and the Uí Dhonnabháin [fled] into Eóghanacht Locha Léin, and to [the country] around Mangarta.
  • AI1200, Domnall Mac Carthaig brought a hosting into Uí Chairpri, and the Cairprig, Múscraige, Cenél Aeda, Bárraid Ruada, and Bárraid Óca assembled [against him]. Domnall turned upon them, and he, the best king of his time, was slain there with many others.
  • AI1201, Amlaíb Ua Donnubáin, king of Uí Chairpri (Uí Chairbre Éabha), was slain by by William and other foreigners, together with the royalty of all Mumu, i.e. including Muirchertach Ua Briain, Conchobar Ruad, and Donnchad Cairprech.
  • AI1205, Cellachán son of Mac Carthaig, i.e. the son of Cathal Odar, was slain by the mounted horse of Domnall, son of Mac Carthaig, i.e. by the followers of Donnocán and by Ua Donnubáin of Uí Chairpri.
  • AI1223, The son of Donnchad Connachtach Ó Cuiléin was slain in Tuadmumu by the Uí Chairpri.
  • AI1283, Domnall, son of Domnall Cairprech, and others of the Uí Chairpri made a treacherous plot against Domnall Mac Carthaig, king of Desmumu... And the Clann Shelbaig abandoned(?) the stronghold of the Uí Chairpri and of the sons of Domnall Cairprech, and fled into In Fonn Iartharach and into Crecán Sifne and Béirre, and to every place they could throughout Desmumu,... And the same Domnall Óc, son of Domnall Cairprech, and all the people of the Uí Chairpri accompanying him, departed(?). Immediately after that the king caused great migrations into the borders of Clann Shelbaig on every side, so that famine well nigh killed all the Uí Chairpri who accompanied Domnall Óc and his kinsmen, and their wives and underlings went to every place they could, to obtain food.
  • C1366, Cormac Donn Mag Carthaig, king of the Ui Cairpri and the Ui Echach Muman, was treacherously killed by Domnall na nDomnall the son of his own brother.
Uí Chonaill Gabra

Some of the western portions of Uí Fidgeinti territory became, largely, under the patrimony of the Uí Chonaill Gabra by the 10th century. This was roughly the baronies of Upper and Lower Connello in County Limerick, and the Uí Chonaill name survived as the country of Connello in western county Limerick. Since the large medieval barony of Connello also included the more modern baronies of Shanid and Glenquin, Uí Chonaill Gabra likely included this far western section of co. Limerick. Ua Cinnfhaelaidh and Ua Chuiléin were noted in the Annals as lords of Ui-Conaill-Gabhra in the 11th and 12th centuries.

Septs noted in the baronies of Connello included Ua Chuiléin (Collins), Ua Cinnfheadlidh (O'Kinneally), McEneiry, O'Sheehan, and O'Billry. O'Heerin (Topo. Poems) cites MacEneiry, chiefs of Corca Muiceadha (also called Conaill Uachtarach); O'Kenealy, chief of Eoganacht Grian Guara; and O'Billry, a chief of Hy-Conall Guara.

Ui Cuiléin and Uí Billraighe are noted by O'Donovan (Poems) in the baronies of upper and lower Connello. The Annals of Connacht note O'Cuilen as king of Claenglas, and O'Donovan's Supplement to O'Reilly's Irish Dictionary notes Claenglais as an early name for "commons of Cleanlish" in the parish of Killeedy, barony of Glenquin [in the old cantred of Conello].
According to McLysaght (Irish Pedigrees), the Mac Inneirghe (MacEnery) chiefs were located at Corcomohid (Corcro Mhuichet), an old name for the parish of Castletown, in the barony of Upper Connelloe, Co. Limerick. O'Hart (Pedigrees) calls their territory Corca Muiceadha, also called Conaill Uachtarach.
In addition to a O'Kenealy chief in the barony of Connello, O'Hart (Pedigrees) also mentions O'Kenealy chief of Eoganacht Grian Guara, a district comprising parts of the baronies of Coshma and Small County in Limerick. The Eoganacht Gabra and Eoganacht Guirt Gabra are noted by O'Donovan (Poems) in the barony of Connello.

Many of the familes were displaced or dispersed by the 13th century after the arrival of the Fitzgeralds. Collins is later noted in west Cork with their kinsmen, the O'Donovans (and in the area of the O'Cuilleain sept of the Corca Laoidhe). O'Billry seems to vanish as a surname.
O'Hart (Pedigrees) also mentions the name O'Connell as chief of Hy Cuilean, "a territory south-east of Abbeyfeale, in the barony of Upper Connello, on the verge of the county Limerick, towards the river Feale, and the borders of Cork and Kerry." These appear to be the O'Connells who were ancient chiefs in the barony of Magunihy in county Kerry, before their chiefs were driven west by the O'Donoghues in the 11th century.

an early Uí Chonaill Gabra genealogy:   (Rawlinson)
Flannabra m. Ciarmaccáin m. Flannabrat mc Scandláin m. Dúnadaig m. Scandláin m. Flaind m. Eircc m. Donennaich m. Óengusa m. Nechtain Cennfhota m. Brénaind m. Araide m. Conaill (a quo Úi Chonaill Gabra) m. Intait Dárai m. Brioin m. Fiachach Fidgeinti m. Dáre Cherbba (and/or Maine Munchaín) m. Ailella Flainn Bic.

an early O'Coileain (Collins) of Carbery genealogy:   (Book of Ui Maine)
Diarmuid, son of Raghnall, son of Raghnall, son of Niall, son of Giollachtain, son of Donnchadh, son of Tadhg (of the Plain), son of Conchubhar Og, son of Conchubhar, son of Domhnall, son of Conchubhar, son of Coilean (of Kerry), son of Tadhg, son of Diarmuid, son of Conchubhr, son of Coilean of the Battle, son of Amblaoibh, son of Dunadhach, son of Duinn, son of Caolluighe, son of Conall (a quo Ui Conall Gabhra), son of Brian, son of Fiacha Fidhgheinte.

The Annals cite:

  • M731, Bodhbhchadh, son of Conall Gabhra, chief of Cairbre, died.
  • M833, Dunadhach, son of Scannlan, lord of Gabhra, died.
  • M855, Bran, son of Scannlan, lord of Gabhra, died.
  • M876, A victory was gained by Cearbhall, son of Dunghal, and by the Deisi, over the men of Munster, at Inneoin, where fell Flannabhra, lord of Gabhra, and many others along with him.
  • M901, Ciarmhacan, son of Flannabhra Ua Dunadhaigh, lord of Ui Conaill Gabhra, died.
  • For 917, A slaughter of foreigners, viz. Seven hundred, by the Uí Chonaill Gabra and by the Fir Maige Féine at Raithen Mór.
  • M967, Treasach, son of Maelmuine, lord of Ui-Conaill-Gabhra, was killed.
  • M1000, Ceannfaeladh, son of Conchobhar, lord of Ui-Conaill Gabhra, died.
  • M1027, ...the two sons of Cuilen, son of Conchobhar, lord and Tanist of Ui-Conaill Gabhra, were slain in battle.
  • AI1029, Death of Cennétig son of Cenn Faelad, royal heir of Uí Chonaill Gabra.
  • M1031, ...the two grandsons of Maeleachlainn, son of Flannabhra, both royal heirs of Ui-Conaill-Gabhra, were slain.
  • M1049, Conchobhar Ua Cinnfhaelaidh, lord of Ui-Conaill Gabhra, was slain by the lord of Eoghanacht-Locha-Lein.
  • LC1131, A predatory hosting by Toirdhelbhach O'Conchobhair and the men of the province of Connacht, into Mumha, when they plundered Uí-Conaill-Gabhra.
  • MCB1136, Ceall Íde was plundered by Toirdhealbhach son of Diarmaid Ó Briain and his kinsmen. Ó Cinn Fhaoladh, king of Uí Chonaill Gabhra, made peace on account of the foray.
  • M1155, Cuilen of Claenghlais, lord of Ui-Conaill-Gabhra, fell by Ua Cinnfhaelaidh, who was slain immediately after by Cuilen's people.
  • For 1155, Da ríg h-Úa Conaill Gabra .i. h-Úa Cind Faelad mac Concobair & h-Úa Cuilén mac Concobair, do thoitim a n-aen-ló eatarro féin.
  • MCB1156, Cuiléan Ó Cuiléin, king of Uí Chonaill Gabhra, was killed by Ó Cinn Fhaoladh, and he himself was killed forthwith in retribution.
  • C1266, Mathgamain O Cuilen, king of Claenglas, was killed this year by his wife, through jealousy, with one thrust of a knife.
  • AI1305, Ó hInmainéin, a noble and pious coarb, was taken prisoner by the Uí Chuiléin and the Uí Chlainne Inneirgi, and put to death.
Ua Laegaire of Munster - not to be confused with the Ui Laegaire, e.g. the O Donoghoes, who descend from Laegaire, 4th in descent from Corc.

an early Ua Laegaire genealogy:   (Rawlinson)
Snéidgal & Éládach dá mc Conamla m. Rotáin m. Áedáin m. Sinchill m. Sétna m. Threna m. Áeda m. Láegaire m. Fiachach Fidgeinte.

Ua Setnai

an early Ua Setnai genealogy:   (Rawlinson)
Conallach m. Máelodráin m. Marcáin m. Áeda m. Fiachrach m. Cellacháin m. Cuircc m. Sétnai m. Fiachach Fidgeinte

Irish chiefs and clans of ancient Thomond
Excerpts from "Irish Pedigrees; or The Origin and Stem of the Irish Nation", by John O'Hart (1892).
(edited for County Clare names)

O'Brien, early kings and lords of Thomond.
O'Dea, chief of Dysart-O'Dea, now the parish of Dysart, barony of Inchiquin, county Clare.
O'Quinn, chief of Muintir Ifernain, a territory about Corofin in the county Clare. The O'Heffernans were the tribe who possessed this territory; over whom O'Quinn was chief. These O'Quinns had also possessions in Limerick, where they became earls of Dunraven.
O'Flattery, and O'Cahil, chiefs of Fianchora.
O'Mulmea (or Mulmy), chief of Breintire, now Brentry, near Callan hill, in the county Clare.
O'Hehir(or O'Haiéhir), chief of Hy-Flancha and Hy-Cormac, districts in the barony of Islands; and (according to O'Halloran) of Callan, in the county Clare.
O'Dugan, O'Duibhgin, (or O'Deegan), chief of Muintir Conlochta, a district in the parish of Tomgraney, in the barony of Tullagh, county Clare.
O'Grady, chief of Cíneal Dongally, a large territory comprising the present barony of Lower Tullagh, county Clare. The O'Gradys had also large possessions in the county Limerick; ...
MacNamara or MacConmara (literally a warrior of the sea) was chief of the territory of Clan Caisin, now the barony of Tullagh, in the county Clare. The Macnamaras were also sometimes styled chiefs of Clan Cuilean, which was the tribe name of the family; derived from Cuilean, one of their chiefs in the eight century. This ancient family held the high and honourable office of hereditary marshals of Thomond.
O'Connor, chief of the territory of Fear Arda and of Corcomroe, at present a barony in the county Clare.
O'Loughlin, chief of Burren, now the barony of Burren, county Clare, which was sometimes called Eastern Corcomroe. The O'Loghlins and O'Connors here mentioned were of the same descent: namely, a branch of the Clan na Rory, descended from the ancient kings of Ulster of the race of Ir.
MacDonnell and O'Baskin, chiefs of the territories of Corca Baisgin or Baiscind, now the barony of Moyarta, in the county Clare.
O'Mulcorcra was chief of Hy-Bracain, now the barony of Ibracken; and O'Keely was another chief of the same place. One of the Corca Baiscinds here mentioned was the present barony of Clonderlaw.
MacMahon. The MacMahons succeeded the above chiefs, as lords of Corca Baisgin; and possessed the greater part of the baronies of Moyarta and Clonderlaw, in the county Clare. In O'Brien's Dictionary these MacMahons and MacDonnells are given as branches of the O'Briens, the posterity of Brian Boru; and, therefore, of quite a different descent from the MacMahons, princes and lords of Monaghan, and the MacDonnells, earls of Antrim, and the MacDonnells of Kilkee, county Clare, who were of the race of Clan Colla.
O'Gorman, chief of Tullichrin, a territory comprising parts of the baronies of Moyarta and Ibrackan, in the county Clare.
O'Diocholla and O'Mullethy or Multhy, were chiefs in Corcomroe.
O'Drennan, chief of Slieve Eise, Finn, and of Cinel-Seudna, a district on the borders of Clare and Galway.
O'Neill, chief of Clan Dalvy and of Tradree, a district in the barony of Inchiquinn, county Clare. A branch of this family went in the tenth century to Limerick, to assist in the expulsion of the Danes, over whom they gained several victories; and on one occasion, having worn green boughs in their helmets and on their horses' heads, they, from this circumstance, got the epithet craebhach (i.e. Ramifer), signifying of the branches: a name which has been anglicised "Creagh." Of these Mac Gilla Craeibhe of "Creagh" family there are still many respectable families in the counties of Clare, Cork, and Tipperary. Some of those O'Neills, who were of the Ui-Bloid, of the race of Heber, changed their name to Nihel, and some to Newell; but they were all of the same stock as the O'Briens of Thomond.
O'Davoran, chief of Muintir Lidheagha (or O'Liddy), the tribe name of this clan; whose territory was situated in the barony of Corcomroe, and at Ballynalaken, near Lisdoonvarna, county Clare.
O'Moloney, were chiefs of Cuiltenan, now the parish of Kiltonanlea, in the barony of Tulla, county Clare.
O'Kearney, as chiefs of Avon-Ui-Cearney or O'Kearney's river, a district about Six-Mile-Bridge, in the baronies of Tulla and Bunratty, county Clare.
O'Hallinan and MacSheehy, chiefs of Ballyhallinan, in the barony of Pubblebrien, county Limerick.
O'Halloran, chiefs of Fay Ui-Hallurain, a district between Tulla and Clare, in the county Clare.
Lysaght, placed in a district about Ennistymon;
MacConsidine, in the barony of Ibrackan;
O'Daly of Leath Mogha or Munster, in the barony of Burren;
MacGillereagh (MacGilroy, MacGilrea, Gilroy, Kilroy) in the barony of Clonderlaw;
MacClancy, in the barony of Tulla;
MacBruodin, in the barony of Inchiquin: all in the county Clare. 

Some Families of co. Clare, and Gaelic equivalent
O'Brien, Ó Briain
MacBrody, MacBruaideadha
Bruodin, Brodin, Broderick, Ó Bruadair
MacClancy, MacFlannacadha
O'Cleary, Clery, MacCleary, Ó Cleirigh
O'Connor, O'Conor, Ó Conchobhair
McConsidine, MacConsaidín
O'Daly, Daly, Ó Dálaigh
O'Davoran, O'Davoren, Ó Dabhoireann
O'Dea, O'Day, O'Dee, Ó Deághaidh
O'Grady, Ó Grádaigh, Ó Gráda
McGrath, MacCraith
O'Halloran, Halloran, Ó h-Allmhurain
O'Hickey, Ó hIceada
O'Hogan, Hogan, Ó hOgáin
O'Heyne, Hynes, Hines, Ó h-Eidhin
MacInerney, MacEnery, Mac an Airchinnigh
Kennedy, O'Kennedy, Ó Cinnéide
O'Loughlin, O'Loghlen, Ó Lochlainn
MacMahon, MacMathúna
O'Molony, O'Moloney, Ó Maoldomhnaigh
O'Mulconry, Ó Maolconaire
MacNamara, MacConmara

map reproduced from Irish Families, by Edward MacLysaght

Irish chiefs and clans of ancient Ormond   (and Ely)
Excerpts from "Irish Pedigrees; or The Origin and Stem of the Irish Nation", by John O'Hart (1892).
(edited for County Tipperary names, and with additional notes in dark red)

O'Carroll, Prince of Ely, ruled according to O'Heerin, over eight subordinate chiefs; and had their castle at Birr, now Parsonstown, in the King's County. The territory of "Ely" got its name from Eile, one of its princes, in the fifth century; and from being possessed by the O'Carrolls, was called "Ely O'Carroll;" The part of Ely in the King's County belonged to the ancient province of Munster. Notes: Also see Éile.
O'Kennedy, of Munster, chief of Gleann Omra; were of the Dalcassian race; and possessed the barony of Upper Ormond, in the county Tipperary. Notes: Gleann Omra was co-extensive with the parish of Killokennedy in county Clare, originally held by O'Kennedy prior to moving across the river Shannon into Muscraighe Tire (Ormond). Also see Síl Cennétich
O'Shanahan (or O'Shannon), descended from Lorcan, a king of Munster, who was grandfather of Brian Boru: hence, the O'Shanahans or Shannons are a branch of the Dalcassians, who were also designated Clan Tail. The O'Shannons were chiefs of a territory called Feadha Hy Rongaile or the Woods of Hy-Rongaile comprising the country about Eibhline; and, as Slieve Eibhline is stated in the old writers to be near Cashel, this territory appears to have been situated either in the barony of Middlethird or of Eliogarty. Notes: (Ó Seanachain of Ui Bloid). Ui Rongaile is described by O'Donovan (Topo. Poems) as coextensive with the parishes of Kilnoe and Killuran in county Clare, and and Ebhlinn in or near these parishes. Slieve Eibhline, alias the Sliabh Phelim mountains, are near Cashel. MacLysaght places the O'Shanahans in the north of the barony of Tulla, between Bodyke and Feakle, in county Clare; the parish of Kilnoe lies in the south of the same barony. The O'Shanahans of Clare became dispersed by the MacNamaras in the 14th century.
O'Dwyer, chief of Hy-Aimrit, was a branch of the Heremonians; and possessed extensive territory in the present baronies of Kilnamanagh, county Tipperary.Notes: (Ó Duibhir or Ó Dubhuidhir). Uí Aimrit of Duibhidhir; alias Muinter Midhasa. Cairney (Clans & Familes) places the O'Dwyers in the lineage of the Dal Cairpre Arad. Their territory was centered in the mountains of Kilnamanagh between the town of Thurles and the Limerick border, where they held power and resisted the encroachments of the English down to modern times.
O'Dea, and O'Hoiliolla (or O'Hulla), are given by O'Heerin as chiefs of Sliabh Ardach, now the barony of "Slieveardagh," in Tipperary. Notes: Árda, or Sliabh Árdachaidh, a mountain east of Cashel, the land of a tribe of the O'Deas. A sept of Ui Ailella is mentioned in the Book of Leinster in Airthiur Eoganacht Caisil
O'Carthy, chief of Muiscridh Iarthar Feimin -- a territory which, according to O'Halloran, was situated near Emly, in Tipperary. Notes: Muscraighe Airthir Feimin was in the vicinity from Cashel to Clonmel and the ancient land of the MacCarthys and O'Sullivans before being driven into county Cork.
O'Meara, chief of Hy-Fathaidh, Hy-Niall, and Hy-Eochaidh-Finn. The O'Mearas had an extensive territory in the barony of Upper Ormond, county Tipperary; and the name of their chief residences Tuaim-ui-Meara, is still retained in the town of "Toomavara," in that district. The Hy-Nialls here mentioned were of the race of Eugenius of Munster. Notes: (Ó Meadhra). O'Meara (and O'Mara) are cited by MacLysaght (Irish Families) with northern county Tipperary origins. An Ui Fathaidh is described by multiple sources in the barony of Iffa and Offa West, county Tippereray. An Ui Eogain Finn is decribed by O'Donovan (Poems) in North Déisi, county Tipperary, indicating an affiliation with the barony of Iffa and Offa.
O'Meagher or Maher, chief of Crioch-ui-Cairin, or the land of Hy-Kerrin, now the barony of "Ikerin," in the county Tipperary. Notes: (Ó Meachair). O'Heerin (Poems) - Crioch Keerin, or Ui Cairin, now anglicised Ikerrin.
O'Flanagan, chiefs of Uachtar Tire and of Cinel Agra. The district of Uachtar Tire (or the Upper Country) was situated in the barony of Iffa and Offa, on the borders of Tipperary and Waterford; and that of Cinel Agra, in Ely O'Carroll, in the King's County. Notes: (Ó Flannagáin). The Ui Flannacan Eli, alias Cenél Farga, occupied the barony of of Ballybrit, King's county (Index of Annals of Loch Cé).
O'Breslin, chief of Hy-Athy of Ely, which appears to have been a part of Ely O'Carroll, situated near the Shannon; and these O'Breslins were probably a branch of the O'Breslins of Donegal, who were Brehons or judges to the O'Donnells, princes of Tirconnell, and to the MacGuires, princes of Fermanagh. Notes: (Ó Breislein). O'Breslen was chief of Fanad in county Donegal. Keating (History) mentions the O'Breslen settled near the river Shannon and obtained lands "by force of battle."
O'Keane, chief of Hy-Fodhladha, a district supposed to be on the borders of Tipperary and Waterford. Notes: O'Laughlin (Book of Irish Familes) states that O'Cein or O'Kean, chief of Fodhladha, is mentioned by Aryan, i.e. "O'Kean from Machuin Meadaidh. His fame shall spread over tribes." He also notes that in Waterford this family was centered in the barony of Decies without Drum. MacLysaght (Irish Families) mentions a sept named Kean (Ó Cein) of county Waterford who is cited in O'Heerins Poem. He also mentions the O'Keanes of Thomond, citing no specific geographic region.
O'Donegan (or O'Dongan) prince of Aradh, was of the race of Heremon. The O'Donegans were styled princes of Muiscrith Tire, now Lower Ormond, in Tipperary; and possessed Aradh Cliach, now the barony of Owney and Arra, also in Tipperary. Notes: Also see Múscraige Tíre.
O'Donnelly, or O'Dongally, and O'Fuirig (or O'Furey), also chiefs of Muiscrith Tire. Notes: Also see Múscraige Tíre.
O'Fogarty, chiefs of South Ely, now the barony of Eliogarty, in Tipperary, had their chief seats about Thurles; it was called South Ely, to distinguish it from North Ely or Ely O'Carroll. Notes: Also see Eile Ui Fogartaigh.
O'Cullen, chief of Eoganacht of Arra; and O'Keely, chief of Aolmoy: these two districts appear to have been in the barony of Owney and Arra, in Tipperary.
O'Duinechair and O'Dinan, chiefs of Eoganacht Uaithne Ageamar [Owney Agamar]. This territory comprised part of the counties of Tipperary and Limerick, now the baronies of Owney and Owneybeg. Notes: Also see Uaithne
O'Ryan or O'Mulrian of Tipperary, afterwards possessed Owney in Tipperary, and Owneybeg in Limerick. Notes: Their territory also became known as Uaithne-Ui-Mhaoilriain. Also see Uaithne
O'Mearns, chief of Eoganacht Ross Airgid. Notes: Ros Airgaid was situated in or near the barony of Upper Ormond, Co. Tipperary. A sept of Eoganachts of Rosarguid included Sil Mailedúin. Dun Cais in Upper Ormond was a seat of the Eoganacht Ruis Arguid (Topo. Poems).
MacKeogh or Kehoe, chief of Uaithne Tire, a territory situated in ancient Owney, which comprised the present baronies of Owney and Arra, in Tipperary; and Owneybeg, in Limerick. In that territory also dwelt the O'Linskeys or Lynches, who are described as "men of lands," dwelling in the neighbourhood of the Danes, who possessed Limerick. Notes: Also see Uaithne
O'Heffernan and O'Callanan were chiefs of Owney Cliach, a territory situated in the barony of Owney and Arra, county Tipperary; these O'Heffernans were a branch of the O'Heffernans of Clare. Notes: Also see Uaithne
MacLenehan (Irish Mac Longachain), chief of Crota Cliach, and Hy-Coonagh. This territory was situated partly in the barony of Owney and Arra, in Tipperary, and partly in the barony of Coonagh, county Limerick. The O'Dwyers, chiefs of Kilnamanagh, in Tipperary, were also located in this territory. Notes: Keating in hisHistory locates the Mac Longachains about the border of Tipperary and Limerick, alongside the O'Dwyers. The surname may have evolved into such variants as as Longan, Long, Lenihan and Linehan.
O'Lonergan, ancient chiefs and proprietors of Cahir, and the adjoining districts in Tipperary, till the fourteenth century, when they were dispossessed by the Butlers, earls of Ormond. Notes: Originally situated in northeast county Tipperary, the Lonergans were pressured southwards toward the country around Cashel and Cahir. They, along with O'Hartigan of Munster, were noted of the Cineal mBaoith (Baoi) in descent from Aongus Ceannathrach, i.e. Dalcassian; and noted among the followers of Brian Bóraimhe at Clontarf.
Mac I Brien or MacBrien, a branch of the O'Briens of Thomond, had large possessions in the barony of Owney and Arra, in Tipperary, and in the barony of Coonagh, county Limerick; and were styled lords of Arra and Coonagh. Notes: Also see Dal gCais
MacCorcoran, chief of Clan Rooney, "of the flowery avenues." Notes: The Mac Corocorans, of Clan Ruanni, were an important sept in Ely O'Carroll, located in both counties Offaly and Tipperary. O'Hart (Pedigrees) cites their descent from Ely O'Carroll lineage, noted as chiefs in the parish of Killenaule, barony of Slievardagh, county Tipperary.
O'Hogan, chief of Crioch Cian, about Lower Ormond, in Tipperary. Notes: Crioch Chein (O'Hogan or O'Hegan), is described as one of the tuaths under Eile O'Carroll by O'Heerin (Topo. Poems). Ardcrony, 4 1/2 miles north of Nenagh, was the site of a ruined castle and church built by the O'Hogans
MacGillfoyle or Gilfoyle, chief of Clan Quinlevan. The MacGillfoyles appear to have been located on the borders of Tipperary and King's County; and some of theO'Quinlevans have changed the name to "Quinlan." Notes: (Mac Giolla Phóil). The MacGilfoyles chiefs were seated in the vicinity of Shinrone, county Offaly, in Ely O'Carroll country. O'Heerin (Topo. Poems) calls the MacGilfoyle chief "the scion of Birra of the warlike tribe, is Mac Gilla-Phoill of fair fortune." The O'Quinlivans, according to Keating (History), sometimes changed their name to "Quinlan" and are now numerous in Tipperary and Limerick.
O'Bannan or Bannin, chief of Hy-Dechi, a territory situated in the north of Tipperary. Notes: Ui Déice was the tribe-name of the Ui Banáin of Leap Castle, in the Barony of Clonlisk near Roscrea. They were once seated at Leim Ui Bhanain, now Leap Castle, which later became an Ely O'Caroll castle.
O'Ailche, chief of Tuatha Faralt. Notes: O'Hart (Pedigrees) also mentions the O'h-Ailche family, anglicised Halley and Hally, as a branch of the O'Kennedys of Ormond, descendants of Cormac Cas. Tuatha-Fearalt, a district in the county of Tipperary (perhaps in Hy-Fogharty), was the lordship of the family, whom O'Heerin mentions. O'Donovan (Topo. Poems) mentions the Ui Aliche, now Halley, in the barony of Ikerrin or near Templemore, county Tipperary. MacLysaght (More Irish Families) mentions Ó hAilche (Halley) as a small sept around Templemore. Keating (History) mentions the land of the family as "a plain of fair fortresses and a numerous tribe, like the lands of the shallow rivers of Taiti. The Book of Lecan mentions the name Ailche of Muscraidi Tíre (baronies of Ormond), from whom are Ui Lachtnain of Ard na nÉn and Ui Luinin of Druim Inbhir (barony of lower Ormond, co. Tipperary.)
O'Cahill, chief of Corca Tine, situated on the borders of Tipperary and Kilkenny. Notes: O'Heerin (Topo. Poems) describes Corca Tine and Ely the southern next to one another in his poem, which would seem to indicate Corca Tine was in (or near) the barony of Elyogarty, county Tipperary. MacLysaght (Irish Families) gives this sept of O'Cahill located between Thurles and Templemore. O'Donovan's Supplement to O'Reilly's Irish Dictionary places the territory of Corco Thened in the parish of Templemore, and the name Corketenny in the deanery of Eliogarty seems to be applied to the same in Sweetman & Handcock's Calendar of Documents. MacFirbis' Book of Genealogies makes note of the Ui Cuanach of Corco Teneadh and the Ui Lachtnan of Bearnán Ele, the latter location being the name of the parish next to Templemore. The parish of Ballycahill in Eliogarty, and the townland of Ballycahill in Templemore (in Eliogarty) indicate the presence of the O'Cahill chiefs in this vicinity.
O'Dinnerty and O'Amry, clans located on the borders of Tipperary and Kilkenny. Notes: O'Heerin mentions the name O'Dinerty, alongside O'Hamery, and the placement within the poem may suggest a location in either the baronies of Ikerrin or Eliogarty, Ikerrin bordering on the medieval county of Kilkenny. The name O'Hamery may have evolved into surnames such a Amery or Amory.
O'Spillane, chief of Hy-Luighdeach, situated on the borders of Tipperary and Kilkenny. Notes: The Spillanes were sept (of the Dál gCais?) who were anciently chiefs of Ui Luighdheach, or Ileagh, in the present Barony of Eliogarty in Tipperary. According to MacLysaght (Irish Families), they were dispossesed of their lands by the O'Dwyers in early medieval times and perhaps later moving into Cork and Kerry. The large townland of Ballyspellan (Baile Ui Speallain), suggests an early presence of the O'Spillanes in adjoining Galmoy barony in county Kilkenny.
MacEagan, in the barony of Arra, were hereditary Brehons; and O'Cullenan or MacCullinan, hereditary physicians in Ormond. Notes: The MacEagan were originally a Brehon (law) family among the Ui Maine septs, who later settled chiefly in Ormond. The O'Cullinans are traditionally found in counties Cork, Clare and Waterford. A sept was recorded as early chiefs in the barony of Barryroe in county Cork, as a branch of the Corca Laidhe (MacLysaght). In addition, the sept of O'Cullinane had their origins in the barony of Orrery, County Cork, as Lords of Muscraighe Tri Maighe (O'Brien's Irish Dictionary).
O'ScullyO'HanrahanO'Lanigan, and MacGrath, were also clans of note in Tipperary; and O'Honeen, who changed their name to "Green," and "Hoyne," were numerous in Tipperary and Clare. Notes: The Scullys were a Westmeath sept who moved into Tipperary on the heels of the Anglo-Norman arrival cited near Lorrha in north Tipperary as eranaghs of the church of St. Ruan. The O'Hanrahans were a Daclassian sept of counties Clare and Tipperary. The O'Lanigans are traditionally linked to counties Kilkenny and Tipperary. The Mac Graths of county Clare were hereditary poets to the ruling O'Briens, who are said to have spread into Tipperary and Waterford. The O'Honeens as noted by MacLysaght as a Dalcassian sept of west Munster (Clare, Tippery, etc), the Gaelic form of the name given as Ó hUathnin. On his map, MacLysaght places the surname Honeen in the Corca Mruad (Burren) region of northwest county Clare.
O'Riordan, O'Riordan, a clan of note in Muskerry; and distinguished military chiefs in ancient times. Notes: The surname originated in the area between the modern towns of Thurles in Co. Tipperary and Birr in Co. Offaly known as "Ely O’Carroll", the kingdom of Éile. Interestingly, a genealogy for O'Riordain, in descent from the Eoganacht, is given in the Book of Munster. With pressure from the rise in power of the Dal gCais (O'Briens) the Riordans migrated into county Cork by the 12th century, where they eventually settled in the Muskerry region of west Cork. 


Joseph Patrick "Joe" Kennedy, Sr. (September 6, 1888 – November 18, 1969) was a prominent American businessmaninvestor, and government official.
Kennedy, an Irish American, was the father of U.S. President John F. Kennedy, United States Attorney General and Senator Robert F. Kennedy, United States Senator Edward M. Kennedy, naval officer Joseph P. Kennedy, Jr.Special Olympics co-founder Eunice Kennedy Shriver, and former U.S. Ambassador to Ireland Jean Kennedy Smith; and the grandfather of U.S. Representatives Joseph P. Kennedy II and Patrick J. Kennedy.
He was a leading member of the Democratic Party and of the Irish Catholic community. He was the inaugural Chairman of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), appointed by President Franklin D. Roosevelt (FDR), and later directed the Maritime Commission. Kennedy served as the United States Ambassador to the United Kingdomfrom 1938 until late 1940, including the early part of World War II.
Born to a political family in Boston, Massachusetts, Joseph P. Kennedy, Sr. was educated at Boston Latin School and Harvard University, and embarked on a career in finance, making a large fortune as a stock market and commodity investor and by investing in real estate and a wide range of industries.[1] At the repeal of Prohibition, Kennedy and FDR's sonJames Roosevelt traveled to Scotland to buy distribution rights for Scotch whiskey. In addition, Kennedy had purchased spirits-importation rights from Schenley Industries, a firm in Canada.[2]
During World War I, he was an assistant general manager of Bethlehem Steel and developed a friendship with Franklin D. Roosevelt, then Assistant Secretary of the Navy. Kennedy made huge profits from reorganizing and refinancing several Hollywood studios, ultimately merging several acquisitions into Radio-Keith-Orpheum (RKO) studios. After Prohibition ended in 1933, Kennedy consolidated an even larger fortune when his company, Somerset Importers, became the exclusive American agent for Gordon's Gin and Dewar'sScotch. He owned the largest office building in the country, Chicago's Merchandise Mart, giving his family an important base in that city and an alliance with the Irish-American political leadership there.
His term as ambassador and his political ambitions ended abruptly during the Battle of Britain in November 1940, with the publishing of his controversial remarks suggesting that "Democracy is finished in England. It may be here, [in the US]."[3] Kennedy resigned under pressure shortly afterwards. In later years, Kennedy worked behind the scenes to continue building the financial and political fortunes of the Kennedy family. After a disabling stroke on December 19, 1961, at the age of 73, Kennedy lost all power of speech, but remained mentally intact. He used a wheelchair after the stroke. Kennedy was one of three fathers (the other two being Dr. George Tryon Harding, Sr. and George H. W. Bush) to live through the entire presidency of a son. He died on November 18, 1969, two months after his 81st birthday.
Kennedy allowed surgeons to perform a lobotomy (one of the earliest in the U.S.) on his daughter Rosemary Kennedy in 1941. Various reasons for the operation have been given, but it left her permanently incapacitated.[4][5][6]

Background and education

Kennedy yearbook photo from Boston Latin School
Joseph Patrick Kennedy was born in Boston, Massachusetts. He was the elder son of Mary Augusta Hickey Kennedy and P. J. Kennedy, a successful businessman, ward boss and Irish American community leader. All of Kennedy's grandparents had emigrated to Massachusetts in the 1840s to escape the Irish famine. Kennedy was born into a highly sectarian society, where Irish Catholics felt themselves excluded by upper-class Boston Brahmins. Boston Irish became thus active in the Democratic Party, including P. J. and numerous relatives.
P. J. Kennedy's home was comfortable, thanks to his successful saloon business, investments, and an influential role in local politics. His mother encouraged Joseph to attend the Boston Latin School, where Joe was a below average scholar but was popular among his classmates, winning election as class president and playing on the school baseball team.
Kennedy followed in the footsteps of older cousins by attending Harvard College. He focused on becoming a social leader, working energetically to gain admittance to the prestigious Hasty Pudding Club. While at Harvard he joined the Delta Upsilon International fraternity and played on the baseball team, but was blackballed from the Porcellian Club.


Kennedy's daughter Rosemary was 23 years old when her father okayed an experimental prefrontal lobotomy, one of the first performed in the U.S. She has been termed "mentally retarded" and she may have been "mentally ill" (no treatment other than incarceration existed for that in the 1940s).[7] The lobotomy went terribly wrong, and left her incapacitated for life (she died in 2005 at age 88). Rosemary's name "was never mentioned in the house", said Janet Des Rosiers, Kennedy secretary and mistress of Joseph for nine years.[8]
Dr. Bertram S. Brown, director of the National Institute of Mental Health, said later that Joseph called his daughter Rosemary mentally retarded rather than mentally ill in order to protect John's reputation for a presidential run, and that the family's "lack of support for mental illness is part of a lifelong family denial of what was really so".[9]

[edit]Business career

Kennedy made a large fortune as a stock market and commodity investor and by investing in real estate and a wide range of industries. He never built a significant business from scratch, but his timing as both buyer and seller was usually excellent. Sometimes he made use ofinside information in ways which were legal at the time but were later outlawed. He later became the first chairman of the SEC. After his death, various gangsters including Frank Costello claimed to have associated with Kennedy. According to some accounts,[which?] Kennedy was associated in the "bear raid" that precipitated the Wall Street Crash of 1929, as well as much of the bootlegging activity that was common at the time.[citation needed] When Fortune magazine published its first list of the richest people in the United States in 1957, it placed him in the $200–400 million band[10] ($1.56–3.12 billion today[11]), meaning that it estimated him to be between the ninth and sixteenth richest person in the United States at that time.

[edit]Early ventures

Kennedy claimed to be America's youngest bank president.
After graduating from Harvard in 1912, he took his first job as a state-employed bank examiner. This allowed him to learn a great deal about the banking industry. In 1913, the Columbia Trust Bank, in which his father held a significant share, was under threat of takeover. Kennedy, borrowing $45,000 ($996,667 today[11]) from family and friends, bought back control and at age 25 was rewarded by being elected the bank's president. Kennedy told the press he was "the youngest" bank president in America.[12]
Kennedy emerged as a highly successful entrepreneur with an eye for value. For example, as a real estate investor, he turned a handsome profit from ownership of Old Colony Realty Associates, Inc., which bought distressed real estate.[13]
Although skeptical of American involvement in World War I, he sought to participate in war-time production as an assistant general-manager of a major Bethlehem Steel shipyard in Quincy, Massachusetts. There he oversaw the production of transports and warships critical to the war. This job brought him into contact with the Assistant Secretary of the Navy, Franklin Delano Roosevelt.

[edit]Wall Street and stock market investments

In 1919, he joined the prominent stock brokerage firm of Hayden, Stone & Co. where he became an expert in dealing in the unregulated stock market of the day, engaging in tactics that were later labeled insider trading and market manipulation. (He happened to be on the corner of Wall and Broad Streets at the moment of the Wall Street bombing on September 16, 1920, and was thrown to the ground by the force of the blast.)[14] In 1923 he left Hayden, and set up his own investment company, becoming a multi-millionaire during the bull market of the 1920s, and even more wealthy as a result of taking "short" positions in 1929.
David Kennedy, author of Freedom From Fear, describes the Wall Street of the Kennedy era:
[It] was a strikingly information-starved environment. Many firms whose securities were publicly traded published no regular reports or issued reports whose data were so arbitrarily selected and capriciously audited as to be worse than useless. It was this circumstance that had conferred such awesome power on a handful of investment bankers like J.P. Morgan, because they commanded a virtual monopoly of the information necessary for making sound financial decisions. Especially in the secondary markets, where reliable information was all but impossible for the average investor to come by, opportunities abounded for insider manipulation and wildcat speculation.

[edit]The Crash

Kennedy formed alliances with several other Irish-Catholic investors, including Charles E. MitchellMichael J. Meehan and Bernard Smith. He helped establish the Libby-Owens-Ford stock pool, an arrangement in which Kennedy and colleagues created a scarcity of Libby-Owens-Ford stock to drive up the value of their own holdings in the stock, using inside information and the public's lack of knowledge. Pool operators would bribe journalists to present information in the most advantageous manner. Attempts to corner stocks were made that would cause the price to go up, and bear raids could cause the price to collapse downward. Kennedy got into a bidding war seeking control of founder John Hertz's company Yellow Cab.[15]
Kennedy later claimed he knew the rampant stock speculation of the late 1920s would lead to a crash. It is said that he knew it was time to get out of the market when he received stock tips from a shoe-shine boy.[16] Kennedy survived the crash "because he possessed a passion for facts, a complete lack of sentiment and a marvelous sense of timing".[17] During the Great Depression Kennedy vastly increased his financial fortune by investing most of it in real estate. In 1929, Kennedy's fortune was estimated to be $4 million (equivalent to $51.3 million today[11]). By 1935, his wealth had increased to $180 million (equivalent to $2.88 billion today[11]).

[edit]Investments in movie production, liquor importing, and real estate

Kennedy, along with fifteen others, signed a telegram warning that the release of Sadie Thompson starring Gloria Swanson would jeopardize the ability of the movie industry to censor itself. Swanson needed financing for her movie production company, and Kennedy began a three-year affair when he met her for lunch in New York after the film's release.[18]
Kennedy made huge profits from reorganizing and refinancing several Hollywood studios. Film production in the US was much more decentralized than it is today, with many different movie studios producing film product. One small studio was FBO, Film Booking Offices of America, which specialized in Westerns produced cheaply. Its owner was in financial trouble and asked Kennedy to help find a new owner. Kennedy formed his own group of investors and bought it for $1.5 million ($18.8 million today[11]).
Kennedy moved to Hollywood in March 1926 to focus on running the studio. Movie studios were then permitted to own exhibition companies which were necessary to get their films on local screens. With that in mind, in a hostile buyout, he acquired the Keith-Albee-Orpheum Theaters Corporation (KAO) which had more than 700 vaudeville movie theaters across the United States. He later purchased another production studio called Pathe Exchange, and merged those two entities with Cecil B. DeMille's Producers Distributing Corporation in March 1927.
In October 1928, he formally merged his film companies FBO and KAO to form Radio-Keith-Orpheum (RKO) and made a large amount of money in the process. Then, keen to buy thePantages Theatre chain, which had 63 profitable theaters, Kennedy made an offer of $8 million ($103 million today). It was declined. He then stopped distributing his movies to Pantages. Still,Alexander Pantages declined to sell. However, when Pantages was later charged and tried for rape, his reputation took a battering and he accepted Kennedy's revised offer of $3.5 million ($44.9 million today[11]). Pantages, who claimed that Kennedy had "set him up", was later being found not guilty at a second trial.
It is estimated that Kennedy made over $5 million ($64.1 million today[11]) from his investments in Hollywood. During his three-year affair with film star Gloria Swanson,[19] he arranged the financing for her films The Love of Sunya (1927) and the ill-fated Queen Kelly (1928). The duo also used Hollywood's famous "body sculptor", masseuse Sylvia of Hollywood.[19] Their relationship ended when Swanson wondered why an expensive gift from Joseph had been charged to her account.[20]

James Roosevelt, son of President Franklin D. Roosevelt, helped Kennedy start his liquor business after Prohibition.[21]
A recurring story about Kennedy is that he made money in bootlegging, the illegal importation and distribution of alcohol during Prohibition. Although there is no hard evidence of this, Kennedy did have extensive investments in the legal importation of spirits. The "bootlegging" story itself may be traceable to Canadian distiller Samuel Bronfman and to New England bootlegger Danny Walsh and his crime syndicate, which did in fact smuggle spirits across the Canadian–American border during this period. Post-Prohibition, Bronfman had a bitter rivalry with Kennedy in acquiring North American liquor distribution rights.[22] At the start of the Franklin Roosevelt administration, Kennedy and James Roosevelt founded Somerset Importers, an entity that acted as the exclusive American agent for Haig & Haig Scotch, Gordon's Dry Gin andDewar's Scotch. They had assembled a large inventory of stock, which they allegedly sold for a profit of millions of dollars when Prohibition was repealed. (Kennedy himself drank little alcohol. He so disapproved of what he considered a stereotypical Irish vice that he offered his sons $1,000 to not drink until they turned 21.[23]) Kennedy invested this money in residential and commercial real estate in New York, Le Pavillonrestaurant, and Hialeah Park Race Track in Hialeah, Florida. His most important purchase was the largest office building in the country, Chicago's Merchandise Mart, which gave his family an important base in that city and an alliance with the Irish-American political leadership there.

[edit]SEC Chairman

Kennedy's first major involvement in a national political campaign was his support in 1932 for Franklin D. Roosevelt's bid for the Presidency. He donated, loaned, and raised a substantial amount of money for the campaign. Roosevelt rewarded him with an appointment as the inaugural Chairman of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). Kennedy had hoped for a Cabinet post, such as Secretary of the Treasury. After Franklin Roosevelt called Joe to Washington, D.C. to clean up the securities industry, somebody asked FDR why he had tapped such a crook. "Takes one to catch one," replied Roosevelt.[24] Kennedy's reforming work as SEC Chairman was widely praised on all sides, as investors realized the SEC was protecting their interests. His knowledge of the financial markets equipped him to identify areas requiring the attention of regulators. One of the crucial reforms was the requirement for companies to regularly file financial statements with the SEC, which broke what some saw as an information monopoly maintained by the Morgan banking family. He left the SEC in 1935 to take over the Maritime Commission, which built on his wartime experience in running a major shipyard.

[edit]Disputes with Father Charles Coughlin

Father Charles Coughlin was an Irish-Canadian priest in Detroit, who became perhaps the most prominent Roman Catholic spokesman on political and financial issues in the 1930s, with a radio audience that reached millions every week. A strong supporter of Roosevelt in 1932, Coughlin broke with the president in 1934 who became a bitter opponent of his weekly, anti-communist, anti-Semitic, anti-Federal Reserve and isolationist radio talks. Roosevelt sent Kennedy and other prominent Irish Catholics to try to tone down Coughlin.[25] Coughlin swung his support to Huey Long in 1935 and then to William Lemke's Union Party in 1936. Kennedy strongly supported the New Deal and believed as early as 1933 that Coughlin was "becoming a very dangerous proposition" as an opponent of Roosevelt and "an out and out demagogue". In 1936, Kennedy worked with Roosevelt, Bishop Francis Spellman and Cardinal Eugenio Pacelli (later Pope Pius XII) to shut Coughlin down.[26]When Coughlin returned to the air in 1940, Kennedy continued to battle against his influence among Irish Americans.[27]

[edit]Ambassador to Britain

Kennedy's UK Ambassador nomination
In 1938, Roosevelt appointed Kennedy as the United States Ambassador to the Court of St. James's (the United Kingdom) in London. Kennedy hugely enjoyed his leadership position in London high society, which stood in stark contrast to his relative outsider status in Boston. His daughter Kathleen married the heir to the Duke of Devonshire, the head of one of England's grandest aristocratic families. Kennedy rejected the warnings of the prominent Member of Parliament Winston Churchill that any compromise with Nazi Germany was impossible. Instead, Kennedy supported Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain's apparent policy of appeasement in order to stave off a second world war that would be a more horrible Armageddon than the first. Throughout 1938, while the Nazi persecution of the Jews in Germany and Austria intensified, Kennedy attempted to arrange a meeting with Adolf Hitler.[28] Shortly before the Nazi aerial bombing of British cities began in September 1940, Kennedy once again sought a personal meeting with Hitler, again without the approval of the Department of State, "to bring about a better understanding between the United States and Germany".[29] It has been surmised that Kennedy also had personal reasons for wanting to avoid war; "He feared for the lives of his three eldest sons, Joe, Jack and Bobby, all of whom were or soon would be eligible to serve."[30]
Kennedy also argued strongly against giving military and economic aid to the United Kingdom. "Democracy is finished in England. It may be here," he stated in the Boston Sunday Globe of November 10, 1940. With Nazi German troops having overrun PolandDenmarkNorwayBelgium, the NetherlandsLuxembourg, and France, and with bombs falling daily on Great Britain, Kennedy unambiguously and repeatedly stated his belief that this war was not about saving democracy from National Socialism (Nazism) or from Fascism. In an interview with two newspaper journalists, Louis M. Lyons, of the Boston Globe, and Ralph Coghlan, of the St. Louis Post-Dispatch, Kennedy opined:
It's all a question of what we do with the next six months. The whole reason for aiding England is to give us time ... As long as she is in there, we have time to prepare. It isn't that [Britain is] fighting for democracy. That's the bunk. She's fighting for self-preservation, just as we will if it comes to us ... I know more about the European situation than anybody else, and it's up to me to see that the country gets it.[31]
His views were becoming inconsistent and increasingly isolationist; British MP Josiah Wedgwood, 1st Baron Wedgwood, who had himself opposed the British Government's earlier appeasement policy, said of Kennedy:
We have a rich man, untrained in diplomacy, unlearned in history and politics, who is a great publicity seeker and who apparently is ambitious to be the first Catholic president of the U.S.[citation needed]
In British government circles during the Blitz, Kennedy was widely disparaged as a defeatist. He retreated to the countryside during the bombings of London by German aircraft, at a time when the British Royal Family, Prime Minister, government ministers, and other ambassadors chose to stay in London. When the American public and Roosevelt Administration officials read his quotes on democracy being "finished", and his belief that the Battle of Britain wasn't about "fighting for democracy", all of it being just "bunk", they realized that Kennedy could not be trusted to represent the United States.[citation needed] In the face of national public outcry, and pressure from the Roosevelt Department of State, which no longer wanted him, Kennedy submitted his resignation late in November 1940.[citation needed]

[edit]Reduced influence

Throughout the rest of the war, relations between Kennedy and the Roosevelt Administration remained tense (especially when Joseph P. Kennedy, Jr., vocally opposed President Roosevelt's unprecedented nomination for a third term, which began in 1941). Kennedy may have wanted to run for president himself in 1940 or later. Having effectively removed himself from the national stage, Joseph P. Kennedy, Sr., sat out World War II on the sidelines. However, Kennedy did stay active in the smaller venues of rallying Irish-American and Roman Catholic Democrats to vote for Roosevelt's re-election for a fourth term in 1944. Former Ambassador Kennedy claimed to be eager to help the war effort, but as a result of his previous gaffes, he was neither trusted nor invited to do so.[32]
Due to his philanthropy and a close friendship with Francis Spellman, Archbishop of New York (later Cardinal), during this time, Joseph Kennedy was invested as a knight of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta, an honor which at that time he shared with just a few dozen Americans.
With his own ambitions to achieve the White House in self-inflicted destruction, Joseph Kennedy held out great hope for his eldest son, Joseph Kennedy, Jr., to seek the Presidency. However, Joseph Kennedy, Jr., who had become a U.S. Navy bomber pilot, was killed over theEnglish Channel while undertaking Operation Aphrodite, a high-risk, new way to use heavy bombers to strike German missile sites in France, in 1944. His bomber accidentally detonated early, before Kennedy could bail out. After grieving over his dead son, Joseph P. Kennedy, Sr., then turned his attention to grooming his second son, John F. Kennedy, for a run for the Presidency. After serving as a member of the House of Representatives beginning in 1946, and then a U.S. Senator beginning in 1952, the younger Kennedy entered the Presidential election in 1960, and won it.

[edit]Claims of Anti-Semitism

Kennedy's friend Charles Lindbergh was an antiwar spokesman for the America First Committee.
Joseph P. Kennedy was (for a while) a close friend with the leading Jewish lawyer, Felix Frankfurter, who became an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court in January 1939 and remained in this position until 1962. Frankfurter helped Kennedy get his sons Joseph Jr. and John admitted into the London School of Economics in the late 1930s, where they studied under Harold Laski, a leading Jewish intellectual and a prominent socialist.[33]
According to Harvey Klemmer, who served as one of Kennedy's embassy aides, Kennedy habitually referred to Jews as "kikes or sheenies". Kennedy allegedly told Klemmer that "[some] individual Jews are all right, Harvey, but as a race they stink. They spoil everything they touch."[29] When Klemmer returned from a trip to Germany and reported the pattern of vandalism and assaults on Jews by Nazis, Kennedy responded, "Well, they brought it on themselves."[34]
On June 13, 1938, Kennedy met with Herbert von Dirksen, the German ambassador to the United Kingdom, in London, who claimed upon his return to Berlin that Kennedy had told him that "it was not so much the fact that we want to get rid of the Jews that was so harmful to us, but rather the loud clamor with which we accompanied this purpose. [Kennedy] himself fully understood our Jewish policy."[35] Kennedy's main concern with such violent acts against German Jews as Kristallnacht was that they generated bad publicity in the West for the Nazi regime, a concern that he communicated in a letter to Charles Lindbergh.[36]
Kennedy had a close friendship with Nancy Astor. The correspondence between them is reportedly replete with anti-Semitic statements.[37]As Edward Renehan notes:
As fiercely anti-Communist as they were anti-Semitic, Kennedy and Astor looked upon Adolf Hitler as a welcome solution to both of these "world problems" (Nancy's phrase).... Kennedy replied that he expected the "Jew media" in the United States to become a problem, that "Jewish pundits in New York and Los Angeles" were already making noises contrived to "set a match to the fuse of the world".[38]
By August 1940, Kennedy worried that a third term as the President for Roosevelt would mean war. As Leamer reports, "Joe believed that Roosevelt, Churchill, the Jews, and their allies would manipulate America into approaching Armageddon."[39] Nevertheless, Kennedy supported Roosevelt's third term in return for Roosevelt's support of Joseph Kennedy, Jr., in the run for the Governor of Massachusetts in 1942.[40] However, even during the darkest months of World War II, Kennedy remained "more wary of" prominent American Jews, such as Associate Justice Felix Frankfurter, than he was of Hitler.[41]
Kennedy told the reporter Joe Dinneen:
It is true that I have a low opinion of some Jews in public office and in private life. That does not mean that I... believe they should be wiped off the face of the Earth... Jews who take an unfair advantage of the fact that theirs is a persecuted race do not help much... Publicizing unjust attacks upon the Jews may help to cure the injustice, but continually publicizing the whole problem only serves to keep it alive in the public mind.

[edit]Political alliances

Kennedy used his wealth and connections to build a national network of supporters that became the base for his sons' political careers. He especially concentrated on the Irish American community in large cities, particularly Boston, New York, Chicago, Pittsburgh and several New Jersey cities.[42] Kennedy also used Arthur Krock of The New York Times, America's most influential political columnist, for decades as a paid speechwriter and political advisor.[43]

[edit]Alliance with Senator McCarthy

Kennedy's close ties with Republican (GOP) Senator Joseph McCarthy strengthened his family's position among Irish Catholics, but weakened it among liberals who strongly opposed McCarthy. Even before McCarthy became famous in 1950, Kennedy had forged close ties with the Republican Senator from Wisconsin. Kennedy often brought him to his family compound at Hyannis Port as a weekend house guest in the late 1940s. McCarthy at one point dated Patricia Kennedy. When McCarthy became a dominant voice of anti-Communism starting in 1950, Kennedy contributed thousands of dollars to McCarthy, and became one of his major supporters. In the Senate race of 1952, Kennedy apparently worked a deal so that McCarthy, a Republican, would not make campaign speeches for the GOP ticket in Massachusetts. In return, Congressman John F. Kennedy, running for the Senate seat, would not give any anti-McCarthy speeches that his liberal supporters wanted to hear. In 1953 at Kennedy's urging McCarthy hired Robert Kennedy (age 27) as a senior staff member of the Senate's investigations subcommittee, which McCarthy chaired. In 1954, when the Senate was threatening to condemn McCarthy, Senator John Kennedy faced a dilemma. "How could I demand that Joe McCarthy be censured for things he did when my own brother was on his staff?" asked JFK. By 1954, however, Robert Kennedy and McCarthy's chief aide, Roy Cohn, had had a falling out and Robert no longer worked for McCarthy. John Kennedy had a speech drafted calling for the censure of McCarthy but he never delivered it. When the Senate voted to censure McCarthy on December 2, 1954, Senator Kennedy was in the hospital and never indicated then or later how he would vote. Joe Kennedy strongly supported McCarthy to the end.[44]

Presidential ambitions for family

Joe Kennedy was a fiercely ambitious individual who thrived on competition and winning. And, in his eyes, the ultimate prize was the American presidency. Joe Kennedy wanted his first son, Joe Jr. to become president, but after his death in WWII, he became determined to make his eldest surviving son, John, president.
Joe Kennedy was consigned to the political shadows after his remarks during World War II that "Democracy is finished...", and he remained an intensely controversial figure among U.S. citizens because of his suspect business credentials, his Roman Catholicism, his opposition to Roosevelt's foreign policy, and his support for Joseph McCarthy. As a result, his presence in John F. Kennedy's presidential campaign had to be downplayed. Having him in the spotlight would hurt John, making it look as if it were his father who was running for president.
However, Joe Kennedy still drove the campaign behind the scenes. He played a central role in planning strategy, fundraising, and building coalitions and alliances. Joe supervised the spending and to some degree the overall campaign strategy, helped select advertising agencies, and was endlessly on the phone with local and state party leaders, newsmen, and business leaders. He had met thousands of powerful people in his career, and often called in his chips to help his sons.
His father's connections and influence were turned directly into political capital for the senatorial and presidential campaigns of John, Robert and Ted. Historian Richard J. Whalen describes Joe's influence on John Kennedy's policy decisions in his biography of Joseph Kennedy. Joe was influential in creating the Kennedy Cabinet (Robert Kennedy as Attorney General although he'd never argued or tried a case, for example[45]). However, in 1961, Joe Kennedy suffered from a stroke that placed even more limitations on his influence in his sons' political careers. Joseph Kennedy expanded the Kennedy Compound, which continues as a major center of family get-togethers.
When John F. Kennedy was asked about the level of involvement and influence that his father had held in his razor-thin presidential victory, JFK would joke that on the eve before the election, his father had asked him the exact number of votes he would need to win—there was no way he was paying "for a landslide". John's presidency was a victory for Joe. He saw it as a step forward not just for his son but for the entire Kennedy family. Joe was a family man and strategically constructed his family's image towards the public. He once said, "Image is reality", and the presidency framed the Kennedy family picture.[46][47]

[edit]Illness and death

Joseph and family celebrate his birthday in Hyannis Port in 1963 after his stroke.
On December 19, 1961, at the age of 73, Kennedy suffered a major stroke. He survived, but lost all power of speech, and was left paralyzed on his right side. Kennedy did regain certain functions with the help of therapies. Most notably, he went to The Institutes for the Achievement of Human Potential in 1964, a Philadelphia center that teaches therapies for people with brain injuries. Kennedy made gains with therapy, and began walking with the help of a cane. His speech also showed some improvement.[48] However, being 75 years old and greatly weakened, Kennedy was soon confined to a wheelchair. Despite being severely disabled from the stroke, Kennedy remained aware of the tragedies that befell his family during that time until his own death, on November 18, 1969, two months after his 81st birthday.[citation needed]
His final public appearance was with Rose and Sen. Edward Kennedy in a videotaped message to the country a few weeks after the death of Robert Kennedy, which showed his extremely frail physical condition. His widow Rose outlived him by 25 years, dying in January 1995 at the age of 104.

[edit]In fiction

In the alternate history novel Fatherland by Robert Harris, set in 1964, Joseph P. Kennedy—not his son John F. Kennedy—is president of the United States and about to arrive in Berlin to conclude a treaty with Adolf Hitler. Joseph Kennedy also plays a significant role as a character in Michael Dobbs's fictionalized account of the rise of Winston Churchill, Winston's War.

Mr. Renehan's most recent book is The Kennedys at War, 1937-1945, published in April 2002 by Doubleday.

Arriving at London in early 1938, newly-appointed U.S. Ambassador Joseph P. Kennedy took up quickly with another transplanted American. Viscountess Nancy Witcher Langhorne Astor assured Kennedy early in their friendship that he should not be put off by her pronounced and proud anti-Catholicism.
"I'm glad you are smart enough not to take my [views] personally," she wrote. Astor pointed out that she had a number of Roman Catholic friends - G.K. Chesterton among them - with whom she shared, if nothing else, a profound hatred for the Jewish race. Joe Kennedy, in turn, had always detested Jews generally, although he claimed several as friends individually. Indeed, Kennedy seems to have tolerated the occasional Jew in the same way Astor tolerated the occasional Catholic.

As fiercely anti-Communist as they were anti-Semitic, Kennedy and Astor looked upon Adolf Hitler as a welcome solution to both of these"world problems" (Nancy's phrase). No member of the so-called"Cliveden Set" (the informal cabal of appeasers who met frequently at Nancy Astor's palatial home) seemed much concerned with the dilemma faced by Jews under the Reich. Astor wrote Kennedy that Hitler would have to do more than just"give a rough time" to"the killers of Christ" before she'd be in favor of launching"Armageddon to save them. The wheel of history swings round as the Lord would have it. Who are we to stand in the way of the future?" Kennedy replied that he expected the"Jew media" in the United States to become a problem, that"Jewish pundits in New York and Los Angeles" were already making noises contrived to"set a match to the fuse of the world."

During May of 1938, Kennedy engaged in extensive discussions with the new German Ambassador to the Court of St. James's, Herbert von Dirksen. In the midst of these conversations (held without approval from the U.S. State Department), Kennedy advised von Dirksen that President Roosevelt was the victim of"Jewish influence" and was poorly informed as to the philosophy, ambitions and ideals of Hitler's regime. (The Nazi ambassador subsequently told his bosses that Kennedy was"Germany's best friend" in London.)

Columnists back in the states condemned Kennedy's fraternizing. Kennedy later claimed that 75% of the attacks made on him during his Ambassadorship emanated from"a number of Jewish publishers and writers. ... Some of them in their zeal did not hesitate to resort to slander and falsehood to achieve their aims." He told his eldest son, Joe Jr., that he disliked having to put up with"Jewish columnists" who criticized him with no good reason.

Like his father, Joe Jr. admired Adolf Hitler. Young Joe had come away impressed by Nazi rhetoric after traveling in Germany as a student in 1934. Writing at the time, Joe applauded Hitler's insight in realizing the German people's"need of a common enemy, someone of whom to make the goat. Someone, by whose riddance the Germans would feel they had cast out the cause of their predicament. It was excellent psychology, and it was too bad that it had to be done to the Jews. The dislike of the Jews, however, was well-founded. They were at the heads of all big business, in law etc. It is all to their credit for them to get so far, but their methods had been quite unscrupulous ... the lawyers and prominent judges were Jews, and if you had a case against a Jew, you were nearly always sure to lose it. ... As far as the brutality is concerned, it must have been necessary to use some ... ."

Brutality was in the eye of the beholder. Writing to Charles Lindbergh shortly after Kristallnacht in November of 1938, Joe Kennedy Sr. seemed more concerned about the political ramifications stemming from high-profile, riotous anti-Semitism than he was about the actual violence done to the Jews."... Isn't there some way," he asked,"to persuade [the Nazis] it is on a situation like this that the whole program of saving western civilization might hinge? It is more and more difficult for those seeking peaceful solutions to advocate any plan when the papers are filled with such horror." Clearly, Kennedy's chief concern about Kristallnacht was that it might serve to harden anti-fascist sentiment at home in the United States.

In 1938, Joseph P. Kennedy Sr. was appointed as the United States Ambassador to Great Britain.  Kennedy had little concern for the British, sympathized somewhat with the America Firsters led by Colonel Charles Lindbergh and others who wanted no war with Hitler, supported a policy of United States isolationism, and had no problem with Neville Chamberlain's policy of appeasement.  He resigned from office in 1940 as he disagreed with Roosevelt's determination to involve the USA in the Second World War.  

Like his friend Charles Coughlin (an anti-Semitic broadcaster and Roman Catholic priest), Kennedy always remained convinced of what he believed to be the Jews' corrupt, malignant, and profound influence in American culture and politics."The Democratic [party] policy of the United States is a Jewish production," Kennedy told a British reporter near the end of 1939, adding confidently that Roosevelt would"fall" in 1940. But it wasn't Roosevelt who fell. Kennedy resigned his ambassadorship just weeks after FDR's overwhelming triumph at the polls. He then retreated to his home in Florida: a bitter, resentful man nurturing religious and racial bigotries that put him out-of-step with his country, and out-of-touch with history.
The race to the "top" began a long time ago for these families. Kennedy's represented a threat to the Bush Klan by the mere fact of the Kennedy's altruistic givings, and their recognition that people are worth dignity, rather than mere tools for enhancing the status of the likes of Prescott Bush.
As the Kennedys entered and became unbeatable competitors in the political realm, this interrupted Bush's obsession for a "new world order", brewing even then.
Prescott Bush's father-in-law, George Herbert Walker, and Walker's partner, Averell Harriman, brought Prescott Bush on as an officer of their investment banking firm, W.A. Harriman and Company in 1926.  When it merged with Brown Brothers Harriman in 1931, he became a partner in the new firm of Brown Brothers Harriman.
As a managing partner of Brown Brothers Harriman, Prescott Bush sat on several corporate boards, including:

Dresser Industries, Columbia Broadcasting System, Union Banking Corporation, Harriman Fifteen Corporation, Hydrocarbon Reserach Company, Vanadium Corporation of America, United States Guaranty Trust, The Simmons Company, The Continental Bank & Trust Company of New York, Commercial Pacific Cable Company, Hamburg-America Line, Prudential Insurance, Pan American Airlines, Massachusetts Investors Second Fund, Rockbestos Products Corporation, Pennsylvania Water & Power Company

Harriman Bank was the main Wall Street connection for German companies and the varied U.S. financial interests of Fritz Thyssen, who had been an early financial backer of the Nazi party until 1938, but who by 1939 had fled Germany and was bitterly denouncing Hitler.  Dealing with Nazi Germany wasn't illegal when Hitler declared war on the U.S., but, six days after Pearl Harbor, President Franklin D. Roosevelt activated the Trading With the Enemy Act.  On October 20, 1942, the U.S. government ordered the seizure of Nazi German banking opoerations in New York City.

Prescott Bush's business interesrts seized under the act in October and November 1942 included:
Union Banking Corporation (UBC) (for Thyssen and Brown Brothers Harriman)
Holland-American Trading Corporation (with Harriman)
Seamless Steel Equipment Corporation (with Harriman)
Silesian-American Corporation (with Walker)  

These are the facts of any Prescott Bush directorships or ties he had that had any relationship to the Fritz Thyssen companies. 
In 1960
The Republicans and the Democrats nominate the heads of two of America's wealthy and powerful New England families for President.
The Republicans nominate Senator Prescott Bush of Connecticut for President.  Bush has been a Senator since 1953.  He has been a prominent business executive, and was the Connecticut chairman of the United Negro College Fund, and one of it's earliest supporters.

Bush picked respected Illinois Senator Everett Dirksen of Illinois for Vice President.
The Democrats nominate Joseph P. Kennedy of Massachusetts for President.  Kennedy has been a prominent wall street investor, and made a fortune in liquor importing, movie production, and property investment.  He was appointed in 1933 by President Franklin Roosevelt to be Chairman of the U.S. Securities Exchange Commission (SEC).  From 1938-1940 he served as U.S. Ambassador to Great Britain.  He resigned from this post in 1940, as he disagreed with President Roosevelt's determination to involve the U.S. in World War II.
Kennedy picked respected Missouri Senator Stuart Symington for Vice President.
How would this election of 1960 turn out?
Joseph P. Kennedy, Sr. suffered a greatly disabling stroke on December 19, 1961, which made movement and communication extremely difficult and limited until his death.  He died on November 18, 1969.


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